Outbreak of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Nigeria: Emergence and Widespread Circulation in an Underimmunized Population

Wassilak, Steven; Pate, Muhammad Ali; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Jenks, Julie; Burns, Cara; Chenoweth, Paul; Abanida, Emmanuel Ade; Adu, Festus; Baba, Marycelin; Gasasira, Alex; Iber, Jane; Mkanda, Pascal; Williams, A. J.; Shaw, Jing; Pallansch, Mark; Kew, Olen
April 2011
Journal of Infectious Diseases;Apr2011, Vol. 203 Issue 7, p898
Academic Journal
Wild poliovirus has remained endemic in northern Nigeria because of low coverage achieved in the routine immunization program and in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). An outbreak of infection involving 315 cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2; >1% divergent from Sabin 2) occurred during July 2005–June 2010, a period when 23 of 34 SIAs used monovalent or bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) lacking Sabin 2. In addition, 21 “pre-VDPV2” (0.5%–1.0% divergent) cases occurred during this period. Both cVDPV and pre-VDPV cases were clinically indistinguishable from cases due to wild poliovirus. The monthly incidence of cases increased sharply in early 2009, as more children aged without trivalent OPV SIAs. Cumulative state incidence of pre-VDPV2/cVDPV2 was correlated with low childhood immunization against poliovirus type 2 assessed by various means. Strengthened routine immunization programs in countries with suboptimal coverage and balanced use of OPV formulations in SIAs are necessary to minimize risks of VDPV emergence and circulation.


Related Articles

  • Sailing in Uncharted Waters: Carefully Navigating the Polio Endgame. Miller, Elizabeth; John, T. Jacob // PLoS Medicine;10/4/2016, Vol. 13 Issue 10, p1 

    In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.

  • China to give polio vaccine to 200 million in two days.  // Nation's Health;Dec93, Vol. 23 Issue 11, p16 

    Reports on the immunization of nearly 200 million children in the People's Republic of China on National Immunization Days in December and January. Administration of oral polio vaccine; China's immunization project as part of an overall effort by the Western Pacific Region (WPR) of the World...

  • African countries unite in the fight against polio.  // PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News;11/13/2010, Issue 616, p11 

    The article reports on the mass immunization campaign to prevent polio in children across Africa.

  • Routine Immunization - Do People Know About It? A Study Among Caretakers of Children Attending Pulse Polio Immunization in East Delhi. Sharma, Rahul; Bhasin, Sanjiv K. // Indian Journal of Community Medicine;Jan-Mar2008, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p31 

    Research question: Do caretakers of children under five years have sufficient knowledge regarding routine immunization (RI)? Objective: To assess the knowledge about RI among caretakers of young children. Settings: Pulse polio immunization centres in East Delhi. Study design: Cross-sectional...

  • Asymptomatic Wild-Type Poliovirus Infection in India among Children with Previous Oral Poliovirus Vaccination. Grassly, Nicholas C.; Jafari, Hamid; Bahl, Sunil; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay; Sutter, Roland W.; Aylward, R. Bruce // Journal of Infectious Diseases;5/15/2010, Vol. 201 Issue 10, p1535 

    Background. Mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is imperfect and potentially allows immunized individuals to participate in asymptomatic wild-type poliovirus transmission in settings with efficient fecal-oral transmission of infection. Methods. We examined the extent of...

  • Measles Vaccination Coverage during Poliomyelitis National Immunization Days in Burkina Faso, 1999. Yaméogo, K. Robert; Yaméogo, André; Nacoulma, S. Daniel; Zuber, Patrick L.F. // Journal of Infectious Diseases;5/15/2003 Supplement, Vol. 187, pS74 

    Investigates measles vaccination coverage during poliomyelitis national immunization days in Burkina Faso in 1999. Variation in routine vaccination coverage among children from various socioeconomic groups; Achievement of greater equity in measles vaccination coverage without compromising the...

  • IAP immunization timetable 2012 clarifications. Verma, Sanjay // Indian Pediatrics;Dec2012, Vol. 49 Issue 12, p997 

    The article presents clarifications on the administration of oral polio vaccine (OVP) after inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which is recommended by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Immunization (IAPCOI). The committee suggests the IVP-OVP administration in children in an attempt to...

  • Mucosal Immunity after Vaccination with Monovalent and Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in India. Grassly, Nicholas C.; Jafari, Hamid; Bahl, Sunil; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay; Sutter, Roland W.; Aylward, R. Bruce // Journal of Infectious Diseases;9/1/2009, Vol. 200 Issue 5, p794 

    Background. Persistent wild-poliovirus transmission, particularly in India, has raised questions about the degree of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in tropical countries. Methods. Excretion of vaccine poliovirus after challenge with OPV was measured in stool samples...

  • AAP Releases Recommendations on Use of Inactivated and Live Oral Polio Vaccines. Morey, Sharon Scott // American Family Physician;6/1/1999, Vol. 59 Issue 11, p3268 

    Provides information on the recommendations released by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases regarding the use of inactivated and live oral poliovirus vaccines, published in the January 1999 issue of `Pediatrics.' Summary of recommendations for use of inactivated...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics