Bullying in the School System: What Does It Look Like?

Arnold, Holly; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.
September 2012
Conflict Resolution & Negotiation Journal;2012, Vol. 2012 Issue 3, p68
Academic Journal
Defined as a repeated behavior intended to cause harm to another with one party having more power (Monks & Smith, 2006; Naylor, Cowie, Cossin, Bettencourt, & Lemme 2006; Olweus, 1993), bullying has increased among students and adults over recent years. Even though a succinct definition of bullying exists, students' ages and levels of cognitive development play a role in shaping their views of bullying. Young children only acknowledge direct forms of aggression as bullying, while older children and adolescents are familiar with indirect, relational, direct, and physically aggressive forms of bullying. Gender also plays a role in bullying, as boys are more likely to practice or experience physical aggression and violence as a form of bullying, while girls are more likely to cyberbully and employ implicit forms of bullying designed to tear apart peer relationships or lower self-esteem. However, children are not the only ones who experience bullying. Workplace bullying affects adults regularly and has become an area of increased stress for victims. Despite age level or gender, methods to prohibit and address bullying behaviors while empowering the victim are necessary to lessen the hold bullies have over their victims. This manuscript provides teachers and school personnel with definitions, perceptions, and details on bullying behavior based on age, gender, and medium.


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