Role of novel type I interferon epsilon in viral infection and mucosal immunity

Xi, Yang; Day, Stephanie L; Jackson, Ronald J; Ranasinghe, Charani
November 2012
Mucosal Immunology (1933-0219);Nov2012, Vol. 5 Issue 6, p610
Academic Journal
Intranasal infection with vaccinia virus co-expressing interferon epsilon (VV-HIV-IFN-ɛ) was used to evaluate the role of IFN-ɛ in mucosal immunity. VV-HIV- IFN-ɛ infection induced a rapid VV clearance in lung that correlated with (i) an elevated lung VV-specific CD8+CD107a+IFN-γ+ population expressing activation markers CD69/CD103, (ii) enhanced lymphocyte recruitment to lung alveoli with reduced inflammation, and (iii) an heightened functional/cytotoxic CD8+CD4+ T-cell subset (CD3hiCCR7hiCD62Llo) in lung lymph nodes. These responses were different to that observed with intranasal VV-HA-IFN-α4 or VV-HA-IFN-β infections. When IFN-ɛ was used in an intranasal/intramuscular heterologous HIV prime-boost immunization, elevated HIV-specific effector, but not memory CD8+T cells responses, were observed in spleen, genito-rectal nodes, and Peyer's patch. Homing marker α4β7 and CCR9 analysis indicated that unlike other type I IFNs, IFN-ɛ could promote migration of antigen-specific CD8+T cells to the gut. Our results indicate that IFN-ɛ has a unique role in the mucosae and most likely can be used to control local lung and/or gut infections (i.e., microbicide) such as tuberculosis, HIV-1, or sexually transmitted diseases.


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