Cuyes y Cuchipamba en el Cant�n Gualaquiza: Nuevos Datos Arqueol�gicos sobre la Complejidad Social de los Se�or�os Ca�ar�

Ledergerber.-Crespo, Paulina; Tapia.-Sarmiento, Patricio
September 2010
International Journal of South American Archeology;Sep2010, Vol. 7, p55
Academic Journal
During our systematic archeological survey in Eastern Andes' piedmont, "ceja de selva," Gualaquiza County, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, in 1991, 1992, 2002 and 2007, we documented 12 sites. The objective of this article is to present topographic maps of two monumental sites and related archeological contexts. The topographic analysis of Zapas-Cuyes (approximately 500 hectares of cultural occupation) in the Cuyes valley, and Remanso in the San Jose-Cuchipamba (Sangurima) river valleys are among the largest sites in Ecuador. The two river systems flow into the Bomboiza-Zamora River; their valleys played a key role in the complex local social development, and the trade relations of Amazonia and Andean peoples. The main stone walls, mounds, terraces, ceramics, stone and metal artifacts belong first to the Tacalzhapa fase, a thousand years ago; then, to the Canari and Inca fases. This research is articulated within a previous regional study applying cutting edge interdisciplinary methods during the Gualaquiza Archeological Program, Latin American Archeology Program (LAAP), of the Smithsonian Institution. Before 1991, most archeologists underestimate the grandeur and complexity of the Canari settlements in the Eastern Andean piedmont, and they only focus on the Azuay and Canar Provinces. The new topographic and metallurgic data presented here prove how extensive and complex was the confederated Canari society in Gualaquiza, and together with other sites in the southern Ecuador indicate that they controlled diverse ecological settings, from the Pacific coast to the Andean cordillera and the beginning of the Amazon region. They had short, medium and long distance contacts, in an intricate network process of alliances, and trade of products as exemplified by metals. We compare these societies to the 'vertical archipelago' model (Murra 1972 y 1989; Salomon 1986) to explain their settlement pattern? We briefly define the Canari ethnic group as a complex chiefdom and analyze the main reasons for its influence on the Tupac Yupanqui and Huayna Capac Inca Empire, and in shaping the Andean way of thought.


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