Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Nine Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Southern European Population

Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique
May 2012
PLoS ONE;May2012, Vol. 7 Issue 5, p1
Academic Journal
The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999-2003, we quantified the agestandardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression) across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients.


Related Articles

  • Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007. Estoppey, Daniel; Paccaud, Fred; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro // BMC Public Health;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p114 

    Background: Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in...

  • Total Homocysteine in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. Pavia, Carlos; Ferrer, Imma; Valls, Carme; Artuch, Rafael; Colome, Catrina; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia // Diabetes Care;Jan2000, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p84 

    The article focuses on the study of the presence of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease, its modifying vitamin factors (folates, vitamins B[sub12] and B[sub6]), and lipid risk factors in juvenile type 1 diabetes. Retrospective and prospective studies...

  • Erectile Dysfunction and Undiagnosed Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hypercholesterolemia. Skeldon, Sean C.; Detsky, Allan S.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Law, Michael R. // Annals of Family Medicine;Jul/Aug2015, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p331 

    PURPOSE We investigated whether erectile dysfunction, a marker for future cardiovascular disease, is associated with undiagnosed cardiometabolic risk factors among US men. Identifying the presence of these risk factors could lead to earlier initiation of treatment for primary prevention of...

  • HYPERTENSION.  // Review of Optometry;4/15/2010 Supplement, p60A 

    The article focuses on hypertension, a condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. It highlights the risk factors for developing hypertension including hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes. It notes that hypertension can lead to biomedical alterations to the heart, blood...

  • Intensive insulin therapy reduced cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes.  // ACP Journal Club;May/Jun2006, Vol. 144 Issue 3, p63 

    The article discusses a study which aims to determine whether long-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with type 1 diabetes. 1441 patients between 13 to 40 years of age with type 1 diabetes were included in the study. Exclusion criteria...

  • Fitness Mitigates Early Metabolic Risks. Shrier, Ian; Cantwell, John D. // Physician & Sportsmedicine;May2004, Vol. 32 Issue 5, p7 

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness places a patient at risk of death, but mechanisms for the association are unclear. According to a study from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) group, poor fitness in young adults is associated with the development of cardiovascular...

  • Lipid profile in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive population in Western Algeria. Gormat, N. Brixi; Benmansour, F.; Hammas, A. // Annals of Biological Research;2011, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p447 

    Dyslipidemia in diabetics are as high blood pressure to take very seriously, given the significant increase in cardiovascular risks they pose to patients. Anomalies of lipoprotein metabolism are of major importance because of the risks atherogenic increased in diabetic patients. [4, 11] In this...

  • The influence of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease. Lakemond, Rachel // Australian Medical Student Journal;2012, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p31 

    Background: Vitamin D is essential for many biological functions in the body. Populations that are deficient in vitamin D have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Current research is controversial, and the evidence base is still developing. This review looks at the interaction...

  • Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People With Intellectual Disability. De Winter, Channa F.; Magilsen, Karla W.; Van Alfen, J. Claudia; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. // American Journal on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities;Nov2009, Vol. 114 Issue 6, p427 

    The prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with intellectual disability was examined. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 50- to 90-year-old clients (N = 470) of three Dutch intellectual disability care providing organizations and found that healthy...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics