TITLE

The evolving role of immunotherapy in prostate cancer

AUTHOR(S)
Gerritsen, W. R.
PUB. DATE
September 2012
SOURCE
Annals of Oncology;Sep2012 Supplement 8, Vol. 23 Issue suppl_8, pviii22
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
The prognosis for men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is limited, and patients have very few treatment options, particularly if the treatment failed with docetaxel (Taxotere). As a result, there is a requirement for novel approaches to therapy. Using immunotherapy to induce immune responses to prostate cancer in preclinical and clinical studies appears to be a valid therapeutic approach. In a pivotal phase III trial, treatment with sipuleucel-T, an autologous cellular vaccine consisting of activated antigen-presenting cells loaded with prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), gave a median overall survival of 25.8 months compared with 21.7 months for placebo-treated patients, resulting in a 22% relative reduction in the risk of death. Based on these results, sipuleucel-T became the first therapeutic vaccine approved for any type of cancer in the USA. PROSTVAC®-VF, a poxvirus-based vaccine engineered to present prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and three immune costimulatory molecules, and GVAX, a vaccine consisting of two prostate cancer cell lines (LnCAP and PC3) and genetically modified to secrete granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), both showed promising results in phase II studies, although GVAX failed to meet its primary end point of overall survival when compared with docetaxel in a phase III study. T-cell modulation is another potential immunotherapeutic strategy for CRPC. Ipilimumab, an antibody against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, is being evaluated in phase I/II studies, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or GVAX, with activity in prostate cancer. CRPC is one of the few tumour types where immunotherapy is the current standard of care. Further research, however, will be necessary to improve antitumour responses and clinical benefits, including the use of novel combinatorial approaches.
ACCESSION #
79446276

 

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