Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Terminalia Catappa

Opara, F. N.; Anuforo, H. U.; Wu, R. I. Okechuk; Mgbemena, I. C.; Akujobi, C. O.; Adjero, A.
June 2012
Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering & Applied Sciences;Jun2012, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p424
Academic Journal
Various parts of Terminalia catappa, the Indian almond, are claimed useful in trado-medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections and some other ailments. The development of resistance to the antibiotics in current clinical use is a big concern. In view of this, the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of the leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa were evaluated using ethanol and hot water as solvents to determine the active components, antibacterial potency of the leaf extracts and the minimum effective concentration so as to reduce harm. Cold maceration method was adopted in extracting the active principle, having pulverized the leaves. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts indicated the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, steroids and terpenes. Antibacterial screening with 24hours cultures of clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, and type cultures of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using agar-cup diffusion method indicated that P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive while S. typhi the least; ethanolic extract was relatively more active than water extract. Minimum bactericidal concentration test showed that ethanolic extract exerted bactericidal effect at 62.5mg/ml on S.aureus, but was static on the rest test microorganisms at the said concentration. Water extract exhibited bactericidal activity at 125mg/ml on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, but was static on E. coli and inactive on S. typhi. From the activity obtained, S.aureus and P.aeruginosa were more sensitive to ethanolic extract than water extract. The concentration should be higher than applied in this study to probably achieve marked activity. The results obtained suggest that T. catappa can be used in the treatment of ailments caused by the test microorganisms, and thus lends credence to the application of the plant in traditional medicine as remedy for various infections.


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