The Exclusion of Black Women from National Leadership Positions in the United States: Taxation with Limited Representation

Kaba, Amadu Jacky
April 2012
Sociology Mind;Apr2012, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p133
Academic Journal
This article claims that the United States is progressing well when examined through the racial and cultural diversity of its young people aged 29 and younger with earned doctorates. The data show that females in general and Asian and Black females in particular are earning very high proportions of doctorate degrees among individuals aged 29 and younger in 2009 and 2008. For example, of the 117,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals in the US aged 25-29 in 2009, females accounted for 65,000 (55.6%), with Black females and Asian females accounting for 11.1% (13,000) and 10.3% (12,000) respectively. In 2008, of the 14,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals aged 18 - 24 in the US, females accounted for 11,000 (78.6%), and Black females and Asian females each accounted for 4000 (28.6%). The article points out, however, that while high levels of educational attainment is shown to result in Asian, White and Hispanic women being elected or appointed to the United States Senate, Governor's Office and the United States Supreme Court, Black American women continue to be excluded from these three national leadership positions-Taxation without Representation.


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