Selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels during surgically induced myocardial ischemia decreases necrosis and apoptosis

Wakiyama, Hidetaka; Cowan, Douglas B.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Federman, Miceline; Levitsky, Sidney; McCully, James D.
March 2002
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery;Mar2002, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p424
Academic Journal
Objective: Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels have been proposed to be myoprotective. The relevance and specificity of this mechanism in cardiac surgery was unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the mitochondrial potassium ATP-sensitive channel opener diazoxide on regional and global myocardial protection using a model of acute myocardial infarction. Methods: Pigs (n=19) were placed on total cardiopulmonary bypass and then subjected to 30 min normothermic regional ischemia by snaring the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The aorta was then crossclamped and cold blood Deaconess Surgical Associates cardioplegia (DSA; n=6) or DSA containing 50 μM diazoxide (DZX; n=6) was delivered via the aortic root and the hearts subjected to 30 min hypothermic global ischemia. The crossclamp and snare were removed and the hearts reperfused for 120 min. Results: No significant differences in preload recruitable stroke work relationship, Tau, proximal, distal or proximal/distal coronary flow, regional or global segmental shortening, systolic bulging or post-systolic shortening were observed within or between DSA and DZX hearts during reperfusion. Infarct was present only in the region of LAD occlusion in both DSA and DZX hearts. Infarct size (% of area at risk) was 33.6±2.9% in DSA and was 16.8±2.4% in DZX hearts (P<0.01 versus DSA). Apoptosis as estimated by TUNEL positive nuclei was 120.3±48.8 in DSA and was significantly decreased to 21.4±5.3 in DZX hearts. Myocardial infarct was located centrally within the area at risk in both DSA and DZX hearts but was significantly increased at borderline zones within the area at risk in DSA hearts. Conclusions: The addition of diazoxide to cardioplegia significantly decreases regional myocardial cell necrosis and apoptosis in a model of acute myocardial infarction and represents an additional modality for achieving myocardial protection.


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