Do Facial Fracture Protect the Brain or Are They a Marker for Severe Head Injury?

Martin II, Robert C.G.; Spain, David A.; Richardson, J. David
May 2002
American Surgeon;May2002, Vol. 68 Issue 5, p477
Academic Journal
Facial fractures (FF) have been suggested to protect the brain from severe injury. However, others have stated that facial fractures are a marker for increased risk of brain injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between facial fractures, brain injury, and functional outcome. A retrospective review of our prospective trauma database was performed for blunt trauma patients during a 7-year period (January 1993 through December 1999) at the University of Louisville Hospital. We identified 7324 blunt trauma patients at a Level 1 trauma center. Severity of head injury in patients with and without FF was compared. The severity of brain injury was evaluated by admission Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) as well as specific head, neck, cervical spine, and face Acute Injury Score (ALS). Length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, hospital stay, and Functional Independence Measures (FIM) score were also identified. A total of 1068 (14.6%) patients were diagnosed with FF; of these 848 (79.4%) patients suffered some form of brain injury by CT abnormality, clinical examination, or both. A total of 2192 patients were treated for head injury without FF; 220 patients were treated for FF without head injury. FF with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were found to occur significantly greater than FFs without TBI (P < 0.001). The mean GCS on admission for FF with head injury was 12, which was similar to that of patients with head injury alone with a GCS of 10 but was significantly less than that of patients with FF alone with a GCS of 15 (P < 0.05). Injury Severity Score for patients with FF and head injury was significantly worse compared with patients with head injury alone and those with FF alone (P < 0.0001). Mean ICU stay and hospital stay were similar for all three groups (ranges 3-6 and 6-12 days); and were not significant (P < 0.06). FIM score was significantly lower for patients with FF and head injury compared with FF alone (P = 0.0003) and similar to that of...


Related Articles

  • The Outcome and Patterns of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Paediatric Population of a Developing Country Secondary to TV Trolley Tip-Over. Waqas, Muhammad; Javed, Gohar; Nathani, Karim Rizwan; Ujjan, Badar; Quadri, Syed A.; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair // Pediatric Neurosurgery;Dec2017, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p7 

    Background: Television (TV) trolley tip-over incidences are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern and outcomes of head injuries resulting from TV trolley tipover. Method: We conducted a medical chart review of children...

  • Blindness after facial fractures: a 19-year retrospective study.  // British Dental Journal;7/23/2005, Vol. 199 Issue 2, p94 

    Presents an abstract of the article "Blindness after facial fractures: a 19-year retrospective study," by M. H. Ansari.

  • Active lives, denser bones. Fick, Daniel S.; Rubin, Aaron // Physician & Sportsmedicine;Nov97, Vol. 25 Issue 11, p28S 

    Presents a summary of an article entitled `Evaluation and Management of Facial Fractures,' by J.S. Carithers and B.B. Koch.

  • Evaluation and management of facial fractures. Carithers, Jeffrey S.; Koch, Brenton B. // American Family Physician;6/1/1997, Vol. 55 Issue 8, p2675 

    Discusses the evaluation and management of facial fractures. Anatomy of facial bones structure; Several phases of managing facial fractures; Associated injuries for each type of facial fracture.

  • In Reply. Hall, Dennis B. // JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association;9/8/89, Vol. 262 Issue 10, p1328 

    Presents the author's reply to comments on his article 'Nasotracheal Intubation With Facial Fractures,' which appeared in a 1989 issue of 'Journal of the American Medical Association.'

  • Comparison of computed tomography with conventional radiography for midfacial fractures. Tanrikulu, R; Erol, B // Dentomaxillofacial Radiology;May2001, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p141 

    Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) with conventional radiography in midfacial fractures. Methods: The conventional radiographs (CM) and CT scans of 40 consecutive patients with complex midfacial fractures were assessed independently by two examiners. The...

  • Late sequelae after high midface trauma. Kalavrezos, N.D.; Graetz, K.W.; Eyrich, G.K.; Sailer, H.F. // Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh;Dec2000, Vol. 45 Issue 6 

    Focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of severe high midface injury in areas of facial trauma reconstruction. Role of naso-orbito-ethmoidal region on facial expression; Complication as resulting to inadequate or unnecessarily delayed repair; Accounts on the management of high mid-fractures.

  • Faciomaxillary fractures in a Semi-urban South Indian Teaching Hospital: A retrospective analysis of 638 cases. GALI, RAJASEKHAR; DEVIREDDY, SATHYA KUMAR; KUMAR, R. V. KISHORE; KANUBADDY, SRIDHAR REDDY; NEMALY, CHAITHANYAA; AKHEEL, MOHAMMED // Contemporary Clinical Dentistry;Oct-Dec2015, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p539 

    Background and Objective: The incidence of maxillofacial trauma is increasing at a very fast pace in developing countries like India and poses a major health burden. Hence, the epidemiological data of maxillofacial trauma during a 6 year period, was analyzed to study the characteristics, factors...

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF FACIAL INJURIES DURING A 13 MONTH OF TRAUMA REGISTRY IN TEHRAN. Zargar, Moosa; Khaji, Ali; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Zarei, Mohammad Reza // Indian Journal of Medical Sciences;Mar2004, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p109 

    Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. Trauma...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics