Roswinanto, Widyarso
January 2011
AMA Summer Educators' Conference Proceedings;2011, Vol. 22, p431
Conference Paper
Various brand conceptualizations have been developed and integrated into networks of inter-connected models. The current paper focuses on brand experience concept that characterizes the immediate effects of brand stimuli on consumers' responses. A previously developed scale of brand experience was investigated to discover its antecedents and consequences. Brand experience was conceptualized as subjective, internal consumer responses (sensations, feelings, cognitions) and behavioral responses evoked by brand-related stimuli that are part of a brand's design and identity, packaging, communications, and environment (Brakus et al. 2009). An exploratory research started from the nearest potential phenomena affecting consumers' brand experiences as well as the most direct effects of such experiences in which they were exposed to brand stimuli. Advertising was used as the context to represent brand stimuli. Four antecedents of brand experience were recognized: attitude toward brand name, connectedness to celebrity endorser, message fit, and visual imaging. Attitude toward brand name represents the degree to which a person considers a brand name acceptable (Schmitt et al. 1994). Conceptualization of connectedness to celebrity was adapted from Russel et al. (2004) as the level of intensity of the relationship that a viewer develops with a celebrity (that later endorses a brand in advertising). Message fit was conceptualized as the extent to which the meaning developed in a consumer's cognition from the advertisement message fits with the value of the advertised product as expected by the consumer. Visual imaging represents the extent to which an advertisement has stimulated a person to form mental images of what was described verbally in the ad copy (Unnava and Burnkrant 1991). Two consequences of brand experience were analyzed in this study; brand attitude and brand distinctiveness. Brand attitude represents a relatively enduring, uni-dimensional summary evaluation of the brand that presumably energizes behavior (Spears and Singh 2004). Brand distinctiveness was conceptualized as brand associations which result in high brand awareness and the extent to which the associated brand stands out in consumer's mind (Yoo et al. 2000). Drawing on extant literature, six hypotheses were developed in relation to brand experience. The first four hypotheses were focusing on the positive effects of the four antecedents on brand experience. The last two hypotheses were focusing on the positive effect of brand experience on its two consequences. The results of the survey signified factors that preceded and followed the brand experience phenomenon and demonstrated the substance of brand experience as potential mediator for various brand phenomena. Methodology The sample was collected from a Southern public state university. There were 297 responses in total. The connectedness to celebrity endorser was modified from a developed construct connectedness to television program and character. One out of twelve dimensions of connectedness was removed due to low factor loading. Message fit construct is developmental in this study. Other five constructs were adopted from previously validated scales. The factor analysis showed well separated loadings for each construct's dimensions in the range of .76 to .91, and Cronbach's alpha of the constructs were in the range of .84 to .93. Multiple regressions were used to test three sets of positive relationships of: (1) the four antecedents to predict brand experience, (2) brand experience to predict brand attitude, and (3) brand experience to predict brand distinctiveness. Sobel test (Aroian version) was used to test brand experience as mediating variable between the antecedents and the consequences. Conclusions Three out of four antecedents that significantly predicted brand experience (R² = 35.5%, F(4, 264) = 37.1, p value < .001) were the attitude toward brand name ( β = .33, t(264) = 6.1, p value < .001), connectedness to celebrity endorser (β = .31, t (264) = 4.6, p value < .001); and visual imaging (β = .27, t(264) = 4.9, p value < .001). The last antecedent, message fit, was not significantly predicting brand experience (p value = .97). Brand experience was found as significant predictor for brand attitude (β = .47, R ² = 24.4%, t(267) = 17.5, p value < .01) and for brand distinctiveness (β = .14, R ² = 5.5%, t(267) = 37.2, p value < .001). The results of Sobel tests indicated that brand experience significantly mediated the antecedents and consequences in the study. Brand experience was found significantly mediating the relationships between the three antecedents and: (1) brand attitude, p value < .01, and (2) brand distinctiveness, p value < .01. An interesting finding also came from the relationship of brand experience with brand attitude, that notwithstanding the absence of positive or negative direction of brand experience scale, a higher brand experience produced a higher brand attitude. Theoretical contribution of the study was the ability of brand experience concept to explain variation in responses of the consumer upon receiving brand stimuli, such as to explain attitude, brand awareness, and further to explain other potential variations such as in consumer learning, purchase intention. Practical contribution was mostly drawn from the antecedents that are mostly controllable factors in marketing managers' advertising decisions. References are available upon request.


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