Primary hyperaldosteronism in the Era of Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy

Rossi, Heather; Kim, Anthony; Prinz, Richard A.
March 2002
American Surgeon;Mar2002, Vol. 68 Issue 3, p253
Academic Journal
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been recommended as the standard method for removing an aldosteronoma. To assess our surgical experience with primary hyperaldosteronism in the era of laparoscopic adrenalectomy a 6-year retrospective review of 30 consecutive patients was done. The 20 men and 10 women ranged in age from 35 to 78 with a mean of 51.2 years. All patients were hypertensive and hypokalemic with a mean serum potassium of 2.9 ± 0.32 (standard deviation) mmol/L. Serum aldosterone was elevated in 28 of 30 (94%) patients and normal in the remaining two. Serum renin was suppressed in all patients. CT correctly localized the tumor in all 30 patients. Twenty-eight patients had histologically documented adenomas and two had associated cortical hyperplasia on pathology. Mean adenoma size was 2.0 ± 1.12 cm. Twenty-four patients underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomies, whereas right laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed in five. One was converted to an open left adrenalectomy. Mean operative time was 183 minutes. The mean hospital stay for laparoscopic adrenalectomy was 2.2 days. The patients were followed from one to 63 months (mean 26.1 months). Twenty-nine of 30 (95%) patients were rendered normokalemic. The remaining patient takes a potassium-wasting diuretic. Persistent hypertension was present in 10 of 30 (33%) patients. Blood pressure in nine of 10 patients was controlled with less medical therapy. The other patient's blood pressure remained difficult to control despite multiple medications. Duration of hypertension before surgery was a significant risk factor for persistent hypertension (P < 0.05). Gender (P > 0.05) and age (P > 0.05) at the time of surgery were not statistically significant predicators for persistent hypertension. There were two reported trocar site hernias. We conclude that primary hyperaldosteronism due to aldosterone-producing tumors can be diagnosed and accurately localized with preoperative measurements of...


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