TITLE

The Effects of Expertise and IQ on Children's Memory: When Knowledge is, and When it is Not Enough

AUTHOR(S)
Schneider, Wolfgang; Bjorklund, David F.; Maier-Bruckner, Wolfgang
PUB. DATE
December 1996
SOURCE
International Journal of Behavioral Development;Dec96, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p773
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the assumption that rich domain knowledge can compensate for low overall aptitude on domainrelated cognitive tasks. W hereas previous research dealing with text recall and text comprehension tasks has provided evidence supporting this assumption, recent studies examining the effects of both expertise and intelligence on a strategic memory task (sort-recall task) found that the effects of domain knowledge were not strong enough to eliminate performance differences between high- and low-aptitude experts. In our experiments, both text-recall and sort-recall measures related to the game of soccer were presented to highand low-aptitude fourth-grade children who were either soccer experts or novices, using a within-subjects design. The main difference between the two studies concerned the testing procedure: W hereas in Study 1 testing was conducted in small groups, in Study 2 children were tested individually. Both studies confirmed the outcom e of previous research; that is, effects of aptitude on text recall and comprehension were eliminated when the impact of expertise was considered simultaneously. However, they also replicated the earlier finding that this pattern of results does not generalise to other memory tasks. That is, expertise does reduce but not eliminate the relationship of IQ to memory tasks involving deliberate strategies.
ACCESSION #
7615458

 

Related Articles

  • Genetic Covariance Structure of Reading, Intelligence and Memory in Children. van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, St├ęphanie M.; Peper, Jiska S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I. // Behavior Genetics;May2009, Vol. 39 Issue 3, p245 

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was...

  • How to think in high style. Innerst, Carol // Insight on the News;02/23/98, Vol. 14 Issue 7, p42 

    States that according to Robert J. Sternberg, a psychologist at Yale, intelligence quotient (IQ) measures only a fraction of an individual's intellectual abilities. Reference to the book `Thinking Styles'; Factors which attributes to success of a person in school or at work; Detailed...

  • Urban vs rural residence and IQ. Alexopoulos, Demetrios S. // Psychological Reports;Jun97 Part 1, Vol. 80 Issue 3, p851 

    States that in a stratified random sample used for the standardization of AH4, by A.W. Heim, for the age range from 13 to 18 years in Greece, the difference in the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) between urban and rural children was examined. Differences between the rural and urban IQs; IQs of both...

  • WAIS-III and WISC-II IQ gains in the United States from 1972 to 1995: How to compensate for... Flynn, James R. // Perceptual & Motor Skills;Jun98 Part 1, Vol. 86 Issue 3, p1231 

    Compares the WISC-III and the WISC-III intelligence quotient (IQ) gains, in the United States for the period of 1972 to 1995. Calculation of the WAIS-III estimate; Selection of the Psychological Corp's standardization samples to renorm Wechsler IQ tests; Compensating for obsolete norms.

  • The bell curve, IQ, and assessment testing. Snell, Joel C. // Journal of Instructional Psychology;Dec96, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p305 

    Discusses academic assessment in public schools, and the issue of intelligence quotient (IQ) testing. IQ seen as a variable which should be considered for successful outcomes in academia.

  • Faster than a speeding brain. McCrone, Jon // New Scientist;4/20/96, Vol. 150 Issue 2026, p44 

    Discusses the possibility of speeding the brain's decision cycles. Intelligence level as a matter of high-level skills; Biological component of intelligence; Link between intelligence and nerve conduction speed or perceptual efficiency; Role of time-pressured training in intelligence levels.

  • How's your political I.Q.?  // Human Events;1/19/96, Vol. 52 Issue 2, p10 

    Presents questions and answers to test one's political intelligence quotient.

  • DON'T BELIEVE THIS! HARGROVE, MARGARET // Parenting Early Years;Apr2013, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p30 

    The article discusses the wrong perception of people on fluoride, which believes that it can lower the intelligence level (IQ) of child.

  • SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW.  // Scholastic News -- Edition 4;9/6/2004, Vol. 67 Issue 1, p8 

    Presents an intelligence quotient quiz for children, based on the articles featured in the September 2004 issue of the periodical "Scholastic News."

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics