Rainfall, spring discharge and past human occupancy in the Eastern Mediterranean

Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat; Gvirtzman, Haim; Enzel, Yehouda
June 2012
Climatic Change;Jun2012, Vol. 112 Issue 3/4, p769
Academic Journal
In ancient times human activities were tightly related and sensitive to rainfall amounts and seasonal distribution. East Mediterranean settlements were concentrated around numerous small to large springs, such as the Judean Mountains area. The goals of this study were to determine (a) the sensitivity of total discharge, recession curve, and response time of such springs to annual precipitation patterns, and (b) how spring hydrology responds to series of drought or wet years and to transitions from drought to normal and/or wet episodes (and vice versa). These goals were achieved by setting a finite-element hydro-geological flow model for selected perched springs that characterize the numerous springs throughout the carbonate karst terrain in the Judean Mountains. In addition, we estimated the effect of proposed regional past climate changes on the springs; in so doing, we transfer climate change to community size, livelihood and economic strength that were highly dependent on agricultural productivity. The results of the hydro-geological model revealed that these mountainous communities had the potential to prosper during historically wetter episodes and were probably adapted to short-term variability in annual rainfall. However, moderate to extreme droughts lasting only a few years could have led to a partial or even total abandonment of the springs as focal sites of intensive agricultural production. Spring drying eliminated the primary cause for the location of settlement. This occurred simultaneously in numerous settlements around the mountains of the southern Levant and therefore, must have caused dramatic economic and societal changes in the entire region, perhaps even resonating afar.


Related Articles

  • Generating spatial precipitation ensembles: impact of temporal correlation structure. Rakovec, O.; Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Weerts, A. H.; Uijlenhoet, R. // Hydrology & Earth System Sciences;2012, Vol. 16 Issue 9, p3419 

    Sound spatially distributed rainfall fields including a proper spatial and temporal error structure are of key interest for hydrologists to force hydrological models and to identify uncertainties in the simulated and forecasted catchment response. The current paper presents a temporally coherent...

  • Estimation and prediction of maximum daily rainfall at Sagar Island using best fit probability models. Mandal, S.; Choudhury, B. // Theoretical & Applied Climatology;Jul2015, Vol. 121 Issue 1/2, p87 

    Sagar Island, setting on the continental shelf of Bay of Bengal, is one of the most vulnerable deltas to the occurrence of extreme rainfall-driven climatic hazards. Information on probability of occurrence of maximum daily rainfall will be useful in devising risk management for sustaining...

  • Analysis precipitation regime. Period dryness and climate risk determination for agriculture on albanian territory. KOPALI, ALBERT; DOKO, ADRIAN // Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences;2014 Special Issue, p159 

    Agriculture is one of the most interested sectors in climate studies, because the agriculture activity is very sensitive to meteorological yearly progress as temperature and rain falls. Studying the dryness effects present of yearly periods is with a special interest in agriculture, because many...

  • Quantification of the water balance and hydrogeological processes of groundwater-lake interactions in the Pampa Plain, Argentina. Bocanegra, E.; Quiroz Londoño, O.; Martínez, D.; Romanelli, A. // Environmental Earth Sciences;Apr2013, Vol. 68 Issue 8, p2347 

    This paper gives an account of the assessment and quantification of the water balance and the hydrogeological processes related to lake-groundwater interaction in the Pampa Plain by using hydrogeochemical, isotopic and flow numerical modeling techniques. La Salada is a permanent shallow lake,...

  • Torrential rainfall responses to radiative and microphysical processes of ice clouds during a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006). Wang, Donghai; Li, Xiaofan; Tao, Wei-Kuo // Meteorology & Atmospheric Physics;Dec2010, Vol. 109 Issue 3/4, p107 

    Ice clouds are an important component in precipitation systems. The radiative processes of ice clouds directly impact radiation in heat budget and the microphysical processes of ice clouds directly affect latent heat and net condensation through deposition processes, which may eventually change...

  • Amazing Rain.  // Scholastic News -- Edition 2;Mar2004, Vol. 60 Issue 6, p2 

    Deals with the significance of rain, such as the provision of water to plants.

  • Seasonal Diagnostic and Predictability of Rainfall in Subtropical South America Based on Tropical Pacific SST. Montecinos, Aldo; D�az, Alvaro; Aceituno, Patricia // Journal of Climate;2/15/2000, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p746 

    Examines the seasonality of the simultaneous relationship between Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall in South America. Use of multivariate techniques in examining the seasonality; Maximization of the precipitation cycle; Increase of energy demands.

  • Collisions between small precipitation drops. Part I: Laboratory measurements of bounce... Ochs III, Harry T.; Beard, Kenneth V. // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences;6/15/95, Vol. 52 Issue 12, p2258 

    Examines for self-collection efficiencies for isolated drop pairs falling at terminal velocity using orthogonal cameras to obtain the horizontal offset of the drops before collision and the collision outcome. Collision outcomes; Satellite droplets; Collisions at large offset; Coalescence...

  • The Changing Character of Precipitation. Trenberth, Kevin E.; Aiguo Dai; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Parsons, David B. // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society;Sep2003, Vol. 84 Issue 9, p1205 

    From a societal, weather, and climate perspective, precipitation intensity, duration, frequency, and phase are as much of concern as total amounts, as these factors determine the disposition of precipitation once it hits the ground and how much runs off. At the extremes of precipitation...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics