Archeologinių tyrimų kartografinė vizualizacija

Adomaitytė, Asta; Bautrėnas, Artū ras
July 2011
Geografija;2011, Vol. 47 Issue 2, p133
Academic Journal
There is a need to cartographically visualize data collected in research in order to allow further inspection of the data, their analysis and to do a repeated virtual excavation. Unfortunately, in Lithuania there is no established methodology to move the existing and newly obtained cartographic research data on archaeological objects into a three-dimensional virtual environment. As shown by the present research, for mapping archaeological objects and their spatial localization in Lithuania three methods - classical, digital and laser - are used. Since these methods differ by the accumulated amounts of data (Fig. 1.), the software used for data processing is also different. There is a need to deal not only with the analysis or processing of the collected data, but also with their conversion problems that arise when transferring the data from one software to another. In Lithuania, most commonly used are three types of software packages: computer-aided design (ArchaeoCAD or AutoCAD), surface modeling ("Surfer") and GIS (ESRI ArcGIS 3D Analyst). For the cartographical visualizing of archaeological surveys, it is necessary to create a unified system of symbols as each archaeological object can be visualized in three ways: thematic, spatial, and temporal (Fig. 2). For the graphic visualization of archaeological research in this direction, it is necessary to take into account the fact that ArcGIS and CAD software realistically represents archaeological objects, structures, artefacts and the position of cultural layers and allows to enter and update the information, while "Surfer" software is more suitable for visualizing more smooth surface objects and structures. If the structure of the surface is heterogeneous or complex, the interpolation made by "Surfer" will not reveal the desired information. Visualization of the entire archaeological process should be divided into two parts: initial (control) and comprehensive (cumulative) visualizations of field study data. Data obtained in research should be constantly checked whether they have enough details for a comprehensive visualization. Detailed visualization is performed by summarizing data of direct measurements and by adding attributes, combining material from several studies and linking them with active references. Current computer possibilities allow creating three-dimensional spatial models maximally close to physical objects of the real world. Three-dimensional cartographic visualization in archaeology is necessary because this method allows combining and coordinating data of several researches, carrying out a spatial analysis of a model, testing the scientific hypotheses and making deeper conclusions. It is very important to use uniform hardware and software because converting data from one format to another may change or even distort the original data.


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