University of São Paulo Reasons for Smoking Scale: a new tool for the evaluation of smoking motivation

De Souza, Elisa Sebba Tosta; De Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini
November 2010
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia;nov2010, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p768
Academic Journal
Objective: To develop a new scale aimed at evaluating smoking motivation by incorporating questions and domains from the 68-item Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) into the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS). Methods: Nine WISDM-68 questions regarding affiliative attachment, cue exposure/associative processes, and weight control were added to the 21 questions of the MRSS. The new scale, together with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), was administered to 311 smokers (214 males; mean age = 37.6 ± 10.8 years; mean number of cigarettes smoked per day = 15.0 ± 9.2), who also provided additional information. We used exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The influence that certain clinical features had on the scores of the final factor solution was also analyzed. Results: The factor analysis revealed a 21-question solution grouped into nine factors: addiction, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, handling, social smoking, weight control, and affiliative attachment. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.83. Females scored significantly higher for addiction, tension reduction, handling, weight control, and affiliative attachment than did males. The FTND score correlated positively with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, social smoking, and affiliative attachment. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, affiliative attachment, and handling. The level of exhaled CO correlated positively with addiction, automatism, and affiliative attachment. Conclusions: The new scale provides an acceptable framework of motivational factors for smoking, with satisfactory psychometric properties and reliability.


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