Heat shock pretreatment suppresses cadmium-induced ammonium ion accumulation and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in rice seedling leaves

Kuo, Chun-Ling; Chao, Yun-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei
October 2011
Botanical Studies;2011, Vol. 52 Issue 4, p471
Academic Journal
We investigated the effects of heat shock (HS) on the subsequent cadmium (Cd)-induced ammonium ion (HN4+) accumulation and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in rice seedling leaves. Increases in PAL activity occurred prior to NH4+ increases in rice leaves. Both of these Cd-induced increases were significantly deterred by the potent PAL inhibitor α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid. Exposing rice seedlings to 3 h HS in the dark effectively reduced subsequent Cd-induced increases in PAL activity and NH4+ content. The HS effect can be mimicked by pretreating rice seedlings with exogenous H2O2, glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), or L-galactono-1,4-lactone (GalL, a precursor of AsA biosynthesis) under non-HS conditions. The protection that HS provides however, can be counteracted by imidazole, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH synthesis inhibitor), or lycorine (Lyc, an AsA synthesis inhibitor). Furthermore, the effects of BSO and Lyc can be reversed by the addition of GSH and AsA, respectively. The mechanisms of the protective effect of HS against subsequent Cd effects are discussed.


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