TITLE

On Ecological Studies: A Short Communication

AUTHOR(S)
Hart, John
PUB. DATE
October 2011
SOURCE
Dose-Response;2011, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p497
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
The typical objective of research is to try and identify cause-and-effect relationships. As with any research design, there are strengths and weaknesses involved in trying to achieve this objective. Some study designs are stronger than others in attempting to establish cause-and-effect associations. The task of establishing cause-and-effect relationships is challenging (Hill, 1965) and any study that does not include experimentation, that is by manipulating a variable's exposure, is inhibited from drawing causal inferences (Heath, 1995). Similarly, statistical significance is also based on probability rather than certainty. This article focuses on a particular research design, namely, the ecological study, and attempts to serve as a reminder that the design has its place in the realm of various research designs.
ACCESSION #
67699251

 

Related Articles

  • Determinantes en la transmisión del paludismo en México y Venezuela. Moreno-Tovar, Herminia María; Santaella-Solís, Adalberto Javier // Revista de Sanidad Militar;jul/ago2013, Vol. 67 Issue 4, p139 

    Introduction. Malaria or paludism, is a public health problem, which is determined in a complex way by several groups of factors. Recent changes in approaches those who govern, or relationships with established, can lead to a change in the disease frequency, intensity transmission, its forms of...

  • The hermeneutic pitfalls of P. Glick, Michael; Greenberg, Barbara L. // Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA);Dec2010, Vol. 141 Issue 12, p1404 

    The author discusses the hermeneutic pitfalls of the P value of the clinical research which is usually misunderstood and misused during the procedure. He notes that P value, in terms of both medical and dental literature, is often utilized to quantify the differences of treatment options. He...

  • Distinguishing true from false positives in genomic studies: p values. Broer, Linda; Lill, Christina; Schuur, Maaike; Amin, Najaf; Roehr, Johannes; Bertram, Lars; Ioannidis, John; Duijn, Cornelia // European Journal of Epidemiology;Feb2013, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p131 

    Distinguishing true from false positive findings is a major challenge in human genetic epidemiology. Several strategies have been devised to facilitate this, including the positive predictive value (PPV) and a set of epidemiological criteria, known as the 'Venice' criteria. The PPV measures the...

  • Mental disorder and violence: is there a relationship beyond substance use? Dorn, Richard; Volavka, Jan; Johnson, Norman // Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology;Mar2012, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p487 

    Purpose: A general consensus exists that severe mental illness (SMI) increases violence risk. However, a recent report claimed that SMI 'alone was not statistically related to future violence in bivariate or multivariate analyses.' We reanalyze the data used to make this claim with a focus on...

  • CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF FEMALE BREAST CANCERS AND ITS IMPORTANT CORRELATES: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY. Agrawal, Kapil H.; Rajderkar, S. S. // National Journal of Community Medicine;Apr-Jun2012, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p316 

    Background: Breast cancer is second most frequent cancers in females in India. Public health prevention measures requires an understanding of burden of disease and its epidemiology including risk factors. Aims: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of breast cancer by conducting a...

  • El papel de la epidemiología ambiental en el desarrollo disciplinar de la epidemiología. PAZ, FABIÁN MÉNDEZ // Colombia Medica;jul-sep2011, Vol. 42 Issue 3, p278 

    Introduction: Despite past contributions to health sciences, epidemiology has not extensively developed particular theories to help provide, as has been requested, the scientific bases for the public health practice. However, when environmental epidemiology studies and intervenes environmental...

  • Kingfisher: an efficient algorithm for searching for both positive and negative dependency rules with statistical significance measures. Hämäläinen, Wilhelmiina // Knowledge & Information Systems;Aug2012, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p383 

    Statistical dependency analysis is the basis of all empirical science. A commonly occurring problem is to find the most significant dependency rules, which describe either positive or negative dependencies between categorical attributes. In medical science, for example, one is interested in...

  • Simes' procedure is ‘valid on average’. Rødland, Einar Andreas // Biometrika;Sep2006, Vol. 93 Issue 3, p742 

    Although Simes' modification of the Bonferroni procedure tends to perform very well, albeit often being slightly liberal for negatively dependent hypotheses, there are special cases where it fails more dramatically. We prove that these special cases are indeed special, applying only to specific...

  • Should the Term 'Statistical Significance' and P Values Go Away in Pharmacy Publications? Baker, Danial E. // Hospital Pharmacy;Jun2012, Vol. 47 Issue 6, p420 

    The author reflects on the usage of the term statistical significance or statistically significant and P values in pharmacy publications. He states that it is not necessary for authors to use the term statistical significance when pertaining to the difference of two numbers because it is...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics