Membrane Phospholipid Reorganization Differentially Regulates Metallothionein and Heme Oxygenase by Heme�Hemopexin

Escriba, Pablo V.; Morales, P.; Smith, Ann
April 2002
DNA & Cell Biology;Apr2002, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p355
Academic Journal
Heme-hemopexin coordinately regulates genes encoding protective proteins including metallothionein-I (MT-I) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Hexamethylene-bisacetamide (HMBA), which induces differentiation and activates protein kinase C (PKC), synergistically augments the induction of both MT-I and MT-II mRNAs in response to heme-hemopexin, but attenuates the induction of HO-1. HMBA also augments the increase in MT mRNA in response to cobalt protoporphyrin-hemopexin, a hemopexin (HPX) receptor ligand that activates signaling cascades without tetrapyrrole uptake. Unlike the PKC-activating phorbol esters that induce MT-I and HO-1, HMBA has minimal effects on MT-I or HO-1. HMBA is an amphipathic molecule, and is shown here to interact physically with lipids in model membranes using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The data are consistent with a stabilization of the lipid bilayer and an HMBA-induced segregation of lipids into separate domains each relatively enriched in one of the lipids. HMBA also perturbs membrane-protein interactions, and causes a loss of PKC and G-protein subunits from plasma membranes in vitro. Taken together, these observations reveal an additional level of complexity in the regulation of protective proteins induced by HPX, and which may take place in vivo in response to natural compounds that reorganize membrane phospholipids. A model is proposed whereby a reorganization of lipids by HMBA alters signaling pathways and fusion events considered to be the etiology of the differential response of the MT-1 (and MT-II) and the HO-1 genes to HMBA and heme-HPX.


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