TITLE

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

AUTHOR(S)
RAZONABLE, RAYMUND R.
PUB. DATE
October 2011
SOURCE
Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Oct2011, Vol. 86 Issue 10, p1009
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are seifilmited ilinesses that do not require specific antivirai therapy. The currentiy avaiiabie antivirai drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, au antiherpes drugs inhibit virai repiicatlon by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with interferonu and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combina- tion of nucieos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide anaiogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antivirai drugs possess multipie potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegaiovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the virai DNA poiymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyciovir and ganclclovlr. Widespread antiviral resistance has urnited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinicaily avaliable antivirai drugs for the primary care physician, with a speciai focus on pharmacoiogy, clinical uses, and adverse effects.
ACCESSION #
66616750

 

Related Articles

  • Intrinsic antiviral immunity. Yan, Nan; Chen, Zhijian J // Nature Immunology;Mar2012, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p214 

    Intrinsic antiviral immunity refers to a form of innate immunity that directly restricts viral replication and assembly, thereby rendering a cell nonpermissive to a specific class or species of viruses. Intrinsic immunity is conferred by restriction factors that are mostly preexistent in certain...

  • 5-(1-Substituted) Alkyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides as Antiviral (herpes) Agents. Kumar, Rakesh // Current Medicinal Chemistry;Oct2004, Vol. 11 Issue 20, p2749 

    The treatment of viral diseases remains one of the major challenges to modem medicine. During the past two decades there has been increased recognition of the consequences of serious viral illnesses that are not controlled by vaccination. These illnesses include human immunodeficiency virus,...

  • Antivirals and antiviral strategies. Clercq, Erik De // Nature Reviews Microbiology;Sep2004, Vol. 2 Issue 9, p704 

    In recent years, the demand for new antiviral strategies has increased markedly. There are many contributing factors to this increased demand, including the ever-increasing prevalence of chronic viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis B and C, and the emergence of new viruses such as the SARS...

  • Sustained and transient oscillations and chaos induced by delayed antiviral immune response in an immunosuppressive infection model. Shu, Hongying; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James // Journal of Mathematical Biology;Jan2014, Vol. 68 Issue 1/2, p477 

    Sustained and transient oscillations are frequently observed in clinical data for immune responses in viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. To account for these oscillations, we incorporate the time lag needed for the expansion of immune...

  • Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of persistent viral infections: pathogenesis and prevention. Luzuriaga, Katherine // Retrovirology;2008 Supplement 1, Vol. 5, Special section p1 

    Several viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and cytomegalovirus can be transferred from mothers to their infants; these viruses may establish persistent infections and are a significant source of child morbidity and mortality globally. The...

  • Dual Efficacy of Lamivudine Treatment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis B... Dore, Gregory J.; Cooper, David A.; Barrett, Catherine; Li-Ean Goh; Thakrar, Bharat; Atkins, Mark // Journal of Infectious Diseases;9/1/99, Vol. 180 Issue 3, p607 

    Examines the efficacy and safety of lamivudine in persons coinfected with HIV type 1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) using a coinfected persons in a randomized, controlled study. Drugs added to lamivudine under the treatment process used in the study; Effect of coinfection with HIV type 1 on HBV...

  • Trends in the Development and Approval of Monoclonal Antibodies for Viral Infections. Reichert, Janice M. // BioDrugs;2007, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p1 

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) developed for either the prevention or treatment of viral diseases represent a small, but valuable, class of products. Since 1985, commercial firms have initiated clinical studies involving a total of 28 mAbs. To date, one product (palivizumab) has been approved...

  • Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antiviral Agents. Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Cantisani, Marco; Marra, Veronica; Galdiero, Massimiliano // Molecules;Oct2011, Vol. 16 Issue 10, p8894 

    Virus infections pose significant global health challenges, especially in view of the fact that the emergence of resistant viral strains and the adverse side effects associated with prolonged use continue to slow down the application of effective antiviral therapies. This makes imperative the...

  • Viral resistance: Déjá vu? Sataloff, Robert Thayer // ENT: Ear, Nose & Throat Journal;Apr2006, Vol. 85 Issue 4, p206 

    This article offers perspectives on the continuous development of resistance to antibiotics and antiviral agents. Clinicians are aware of antibiotic resistance and its many problems. In connection to this, many clinicians avoid indiscriminate prescribing of antibiotics as well as the use of the...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics