TITLE

Toll-Like Receptors: Role in Inflammation and Commensal Bacteria

AUTHOR(S)
Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Seghatoleslami, Sepideh; Yazdani, Samaneh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza
PUB. DATE
June 2011
SOURCE
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets;Jun2011, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p198
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
TLR ligands are present on both commensal and pathogenic microbes. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been observed to be largely unresponsive to TLR ligands. This observation has partly been explained by the fact that TLR expression on IECs is sparse. The discovery of the Toll-like receptors finally identified the innate immune receptors that were responsible for many of the innate immune functions that had been studied for many years. Interestingly, TLRs seem only to be involved in the cytokine production and cellular activation in response to microbes, and do not play a significant role in the adhesion and phagocytosis of microorganisms. One member of this group, interleukin-1� (IL-1�), together with tumour-necrosis factor (TNF), is defined as an 'alarm cytokine'. It is secreted by macrophages and initiates inflammation on activation of TLRs.
ACCESSION #
66248825

 

Related Articles

  • Upregulation of chemokine (C—C motif) ligand 20 in adult epidermal keratinocytes in direct current electric fields. Jennings, Jessica Amber; Dongquan Chen; Feldman, Dale S. // Archives of Dermatological Research;Apr2010, Vol. 302 Issue 3, p211 

    Electric fields (EFs) of around 100 mV/mm are present in normal healing wounds and induce the directional migration of epithelial cells. Reepithelialization during wound healing thus may be controlled in part by this electrical signal. In this study, the early transcriptional response of human...

  • Innate immunity: complex specificity. Griebel, Philip; Mutwiri, George; Singh, Baljit // Cell & Tissue Research;Jan2011, Vol. 343 Issue 1, p1 

    No abstract available.

  • Innate Immune Responses to Bacterial Ligands in the Peripheral Human Lung - Role of Alveolar Epithelial TLR Expression and Signalling. Thorley, Andrew J.; Grandolfo, Davide; Lim, Eric; Goldstraw, Peter; Young, Alan; Tetley, Teresa D. // PLoS ONE;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 7, p1 

    It is widely believed that the alveolar epithelium is unresponsive to LPS, in the absence of serum, due to low expression of TLR4 and CD14. Furthermore, the responsiveness of the epithelium to TLR-2 ligands is also poorly understood. We hypothesised that human alveolar type I (ATI) and type II...

  • The Expression and Functions of Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. Cole, Jennifer E.; Georgiou, Ektoras; Monaco, Claudia // Mediators of Inflammation;2010, Vol. 2010, p1 

    Inflammation drives atherosclerosis. Both immune and resident vascular cell types are involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The phenotype and function of these cells are key in determining the development of lesions. Toll-like receptors are the most characterised innate immune...

  • Characterization of Toll-like receptors in primary lung epithelial cells: strong impact of the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) on the regulation of Toll-like receptors, adaptor proteins and inflammatory response. Ritter, Mirko; Mennerich, Detlev; Weith, Andreas; Seither, Peter // Journal of Inflammation;2005, Vol. 2, p16 

    Background: Bacterial and viral exacerbations play a crucial role in a variety of lung diseases including COPD or asthma. Since the lung epithelium is a major source of various inflammatory mediators that affect the immune response, we analyzed the inflammatory reaction of primary lung...

  • Modulation of γδ T cell responses by TLR ligands. Wesch, Daniela; Peters, Christian; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Pietschmann, Kathrin; Kabelitz, Dieter // Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences;Jul2011, Vol. 68 Issue 14, p2357 

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize a broad variety of structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. The recognition of TLR ligands functions as a primary sensor of the innate immune system, leading to subsequent indirect activation of the...

  • Modulation of B cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Booth, Jayaum; Wilson, Heather; Jimbo, Steve; Mutwiri, George // Cell & Tissue Research;Jan2011, Vol. 343 Issue 1, p131 

    B lymphocytes are well known because of their key role in mediating humoral immune responses. Upon encounter with antigen and on cognate interaction with T cells, they differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, which are critical for protection against a variety of pathogens. In...

  • Modulation of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Activity by Toll-Like Receptors: Implications on Therapeutic Potential. DelaRosa, Olga; Lombardo, Eleuterio // Mediators of Inflammation;2010, Vol. 2010, p1 

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest as therapeutic agents in the settings of both chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands have been linked with the perpetuation of inflammation in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases due to the...

  • Interstitial lung disease induced by gefitinib and Toll-like receptor ligands is mediated by Fra-1. Takada, Y; Gresh, L; Bozec, A; Ikeda, E; Kamiya, K; Watanabe, M; Kobayashi, K; Asano, K; Toyama, Y; Wagner, E F; Matsuo, K // Oncogene;9/8/2011, Vol. 30 Issue 36, p3821 

    The role of the AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 (encoded by Fosl1) in inflammatory responses associated with lung disease is largely unknown. Here, we show that Fra-1 overexpression in mice reduced proinflammatory cytokine production in response to injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics