Zinc-dependent carbapenemases in clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae

Rai, S; Manchanda, V; Singh, NP; Kaur, IR
July 2011
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology;Jul2011, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p275
Academic Journal
Purpose: The emergence and spread of zinc-dependent carbapenem resistance has become a diagnostic challenge for clinical microbiologists. The objective of the present study was to screen zinc-dependent carbapenemase activity in clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), non-repeat clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae from two tertiary care centres in Delhi, were screened for carbapenemase production by a modified Hodge test (MHT) and additionally by a re-modified Hodge test, EDTA double disc synergy test, and combined disc test (or disc enhancement test) to determine zinc dependence of carbapenemases harbouring bacteria. Results: Of the total 102 clinical isolates (June through November 2010), 91 were from urine and 11 were from blood specimens. The isolates were obtained from patients visiting the outpatient department (18 isolates), admitted in non-ICU inpatient care units (74 isolates) and patients admitted in ICUs (4 isolates). MHT identified 92 (90.2%) isolates as carbapenemases producers. Among those found negative for MHT (n=10), metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) activity was demonstrated through the EDTA disc diffusion synergy test and the combined disc test in 8 and 9 isolates respectively. A total of 63 (61.7%) isolates demonstrated MBL activity despite in vitro sensitivity to Imipenem. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that supplementing the MHT with at least one of the screening methods increases the likelihood of picking up such isolates that may be missed by the MHT. The study also demonstrates the wide-spread presence of MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae members from patients visiting hospitals in east Delhi.


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