Gebelikte Psikotrop İlaç Kullanımı: Bir Güncelleme

Çetin, Mesut
June 2011
Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni;Jun2011, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p161
Academic Journal
Pregnancy is a turbulent period, during which hormonal and psychosocial lifestyle changes occur. Hence depression, anxiety disorders, or obsessive-compulsive disorders can be triggered and chronic psychiatric disorders can be exacerbated, particularly, due to limitations on the use of psychotropic drugs. Considering a large percentage of pregnancies are not planned, overcoming these challenges creates difficulties for both the pregnant women and the team providing health care services. There are contradictory findings about the safety of psychotropic drugs and their use in the treatment of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. The benefits and risks of psychopharmacological treatment during pregnancy should be considered carefully. When psychotropic drugs are given to pregnant women they easily reach fetüs, as there are no barriers between maternal and placental blood. Generally higher serum drug levels are detected in newborns than in maternal serum. Therefore in deciding on psychotropic drug use during pregnancy, the risks of neonatal toxicity, premature and still births, and morphological and behavioral teratogenicity must be taken into account. In addition not only anatomical malformations, but also long-term behavioral teratogenicity of the drugs must be considered while evaluating the safety of drug use during pregnancy. The classical antipsychotics and tricyclic antidepressants (except chlomipramine) are relatively safe for the fetus. Antidepressant use is associated with the risk of anomalies during almost all of the prenatal period; however, the risk appears to be especially increased in fetüses that have been exposed to paroxetine and chlomipramine. There are significant findings that many atypical antipschotics cause an increase in the rate of fetal malformations by provoking gestational diabetes. Therefore, women who wish to become pregnant, who have been on ongoing atypical antipsychotic treatment before pregnancy, should always be switched to conventional antipsychotics upon the beginning of pregnancy. Benzodiazepines used during the first trimester can be teratogenic and can cause withdrawal symptoms in high doses in newborns, hypotonia, and agitation. The mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, similar anticonvulsants, and lithium) have been known to possess high teratogenic risk for a long time. However, the teratogenicity risk for lithium has recently been decreased. On the other hand, the use of valproate during pregnancy has a strong association with the risk of fetal abnormalities and autism-spectrum disorders. For these reasons, the uses of clomipramine, paroxetine, valproate, and atypical antipsychotics are recommended to be avoided during pregnancy. If there is a need for long-term use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, a full assessment should be conducted, polypharmacy and unnecessary medication use should be avoided, and the doses of psychotropic drugs should be kept to a minimum, because there are rarely valid reasons to discontinue medications that are necessary during pregnancy. In this paper, we aimed to update psychotropic drug use during pregnancy, an important and common issue in daily psychiatry practice, in the light of recent data.


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