High-resolution work function imaging of single grains of semiconductor surfaces

Sadewasser, S.; Glatzel, Th.; Rusu, M.; Ja¨ger-Waldau, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.
April 2002
Applied Physics Letters;4/22/2002, Vol. 80 Issue 16, p2979
Academic Journal
The size reduction of modern electronic devices creates a growing demand for characterization tools to determine material properties on a nanometer scale. The Kelvin probe force microscope is designed to obtain laterally resolved images of the sample’s work function. Using a setup in ultrahigh vacuum, we were able to distinguish work function variations for differently oriented crystal facets of single grains on a semiconductor surface. For the tetragonal solar cell material CuGaSe[sub 2] the experiments demonstrate differences as low as 30 meV between (102) and (111) oriented surfaces and up to 255 meV between (1¯1¯2¯) and (110) surfaces. This influences the band bending of solar cell heterostructures and consequently also the solar power conversion efficiency. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.


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