TITLE

Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

AUTHOR(S)
Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Altannir, Mohamad A.; Almansor, Mohammed A.; Almohaya, Mohammed S.; Onazi, Atallah S.; Marei, Mohammed A.; Aldossary, Oweida F.; Obeidat, Sadek A.; Obeidat, Mustafa A.; Riaz, Muhammad S.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.
PUB. DATE
January 2011
SOURCE
BMC Public Health;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p538
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods: A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in childbearing aged women). Results: A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6%) of 327, of which 231 (95%) were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90%) of encounters, followed by UTI (75%), acute bronchitis (73%), otitis media (51%) and acute sinusitis (40%). Metronidazole (89%) and ciprofloxacin (86%) were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51%) for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions: We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
ACCESSION #
63976309

 

Related Articles

  • JOURNAL CLUB. ANTIBIOTICS OFTEN PRESCRIBED FOR UTIs WITHOUT URINE TESTING. FREEDMAN, MARIAN; BURKE, MICHAEL G. // Contemporary Pediatrics;Nov2013, Vol. 30 Issue 11, p22 

    The article discusses research being done on the practice of physicians to prescribe antibiotics to patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) without undergoing urinalysis. It references the study by H.L. Copp, et al., in a 2013 issue of "Pediatrics."

  • Why UTIs Are Different from URIs. Phillips, Barbara A. // Internal Medicine Alert;3/29/2010, Vol. 32 Issue 6, p41 

    For women with suspected urinary tract infection, there is no advantage to routinely sending midstream urine samples for testing; antibiotics based on dipstick tests with a delayed prescription as backup, or empirical delayed prescription, can help to reduce antibiotic use.

  • Diagnosing UTI is as Simple as 1, 2, 3. Wilke, Allan J. // Internal Medicine Alert;2/15/2008, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p17 

    The article reports on the study concerning the utilization of empiric antibiotics for women diagnosed with urinary tract infection.

  • Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection. Prais, D.; Straussberg, R.; Avitzur, Y.; Nussinovitch, M.; Harel, L.; Amir, J. // Archives of Disease in Childhood;Mar2003, Vol. 88 Issue 3, p215 

    Methotrexate (MTX) has transformed the outlook for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JLA). Most of the evidence from uncontrolled clinical trials suggests that MTX is an effective agent for treating active JlA. Data from controlled clinical trials suggests that MTX has statistically...

  • Cystitis Treatment in Women, Circa 2011: New Role for an Old Drug. Schultz, Henry J.; Edson, Randall S. // Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Jun2011, Vol. 86 Issue 6, p477 

    An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports within the issue on topics including one related to cost-effective management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in women and the other on cost-effectiveness of using nitrofurantoin, antibiotics in UTI treatment.

  • Antibiotic resistance on the rise in UTI organisms. Schradin, Thomas // Urology Times;May2003, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p28 

    Reports on findings of a study on changes in the bacterial profile of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and the related resistance to commonly used antibiotics, conducted by Hassan Wazait and colleagues at the Whittington Hospital in London and presented at the European...

  • An essay on the consequences of childhood urinary tract infection. Chambers, Timothy // Pediatric Nephrology;1997, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p178 

    Explores the consequences of childhood urinary tract infection (UTI). Views of children, parents, pediatricians and radiologists on UTI; Antibiotic therapy for childhood UTI; Ways of identifying children with serious and treatable renal and urinary tract disorders.

  • Headlines & Your Health.  // Cleveland Clinic Men's Health Advisor;Feb2013, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p5 

    The article focuses on a study published in the December 3, 2012 issue of the journal "Archives of Internal Medicine" which shows that taking antibiotics for a long time in treating male urinary tract infections (UTIs) is not good for reducing repeat urinary infections.

  • Treating A UTI.  // Pediatrics for Parents;2002, Vol. 20 Issue 3, p7 

    Reports on the changes in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in adults in the U.S. Effectiveness of short-term UTI treatment in adults; Antibiotic prescription to eradicate UTI; Treatment of UTI in children.

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics