The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

Nakkash, Rima T.; Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rema A.
January 2011
BMC Public Health;2011 Supplement 4, Vol. 11 Issue Suppl 4, p315
Academic Journal
Background: The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods: This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results: The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions: Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries.


Related Articles

  • WHO Adopts Tobacco Control Convention.  // Journal of the Canadian Dental Association;Jun2003, Vol. 69 Issue 6, p355 

    The article reports on the adoption by the Geneva, Switzerland-based World Health Organization (WHO) of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, geared toward preventing tobacco-related deaths and disease, in 2003.

  • Europe's bad habits.  // Eastern Eye;10/2/2015, Issue 1322, p29 

    This article presents information on a report on health in Europe released by the World Health Organization, which reveals Europe as the region with the highest rates of drinking and smoking in the world.

  • Breastfeeding in infancy: identifying the program-relevant issues in Bangladesh. Haider, Rukhsana; Rasheed, Sabrina; Sanghvi, Tina G.; Hassan, Nazmul; Pachon, Helena; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jalal, Chowdhury S. B. // International Breastfeeding Journal;2010, Vol. 5, p21 

    Background: In Bangladesh, many programs and projects have been promoting breastfeeding since the late 1980 s. Breastfeeding practices, however, have not improved accordingly. Methods: For identifying program-relevant issues to improve breastfeeding in infancy, quantitative data were collected...

  • Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users.  // BMC Health Services Research;2011 Supplement 1, Vol. 11 Issue Suppl 1, p325 

    The article presents a study that evaluated the concept of World Health Organization (WHO) responsiveness in the Iranian mental healthcare system. For his focus group discussion were formed that comprised 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran. Responses showed that quality domains of...

  • WHO urges health-care workers to quit smoking.  // Addiction Letter;Jul93, Vol. 9 Issue 7, p6 

    Cites an Associated Press report on World Health Organization's (WHO) urging of all health workers to quit smoking and spread the message to their patients. WHO report stating that only half of the physicians who believe helping patients quit was an important part of their job offer such advice.

  • WHO makes recommendations. E.B. // Medical Update;Sep95, Vol. 19 Issue 3, p2 

    Presents non-smoking guidelines from the World Health Organization. Effect of smoking on adolescents who started young.

  • WHO urges more countries to adopt graphic warnings. Zarocostas, John // BMJ: British Medical Journal (Overseas & Retired Doctors Edition;7/9/2011, Vol. 343 Issue 7814, p64 

    The article reports on the move of the World Health Organization (WHO) to urge more countries to introduce large graphic health warnings on packages of tobacco and launch hard hitting media campaigns, that proved highly effective at reducing tobacco use.

  • Anti-Smoking Effort Seeks Global Implementation. McCann, Jean // JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute;04/05/2000, Vol. 92 Issue 7, p523 

    Announces that May 31, 2000 is World No Tobacco Day, an event spearheaded by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Tobacco Free Initiative, a global effort to reduce smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Organizations that have partnered with the initiative of the WHO; Information on the...

  • WHO calls for ban on e-cigarette use indoors. Iacobucci, Gareth // BMJ: British Medical Journal;9/6/2014, Vol. 349 Issue 7973, pg5335 

    The article reports that the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged nations to unveil tighter rules on the use of electronic cigarettes such as banning the indoor use of the devices as well as prohibiting their sale to minors.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics