HIV epidemic in Far-Western Nepal: effect of seasonal labor migration to India

Vaidya, Naveen K.; Jianhong Wu
January 2011
BMC Public Health;2011 Supplement 4, Vol. 11 Issue Suppl 4, p310
Academic Journal
Background: Because of limited work opportunities in Nepal and the open-border provision between Nepal and India, a seasonal labor migration of males from Far-Western Nepal to India is common. Unsafe sexual activities of these migrants in India, such as frequent visits to brothels, lead to a high HIV prevalence among them and to a potential transmission upon their return home to Nepal. The present study aims to evaluate the role of such seasonal labor-migration to India on HIV transmission in Far-Western Nepal and to assess prevention programs. Methods: An HIV epidemic model was developed for a population in Far-Western Nepal. The model was fitted to the data to estimate the back and forth mobility rates of labor-migrants to India, the HIV prevalence among migrants and the HIV transmission rate in Far-Western Nepal. HIV prevalence, new infections, disease deaths and HIV infections recruited from India were calculated. Prevention programs targeting the general population and the migrants were evaluated. Results: Without any intervention programs, Far-Western Nepal will have about 7,000 HIV infected individuals returning from India by 2015, and 12,000 labor-migrants living with HIV in India. An increase of condom use among the general population from 39% to 80% will reduce new HIV infections due to sexual activity in Far- Western Nepal from 239 to 77. However, such a program loses its effectiveness due to the recruitment of HIV infections via returning migrants from India. The reduction of prevalence among migrants from 2.2% to 1.1% can bring general prevalence down to 0.4% with only 3,500 recruitments of HIV infections from India. Conclusion: Recruitment of HIV infections from India via seasonal labor-migrants is the key factor contributing to the HIV epidemic in Far-Western Nepal. Prevention programs focused on the general population are ineffective. Our finding highlights the urgency of developing prevention programs which reduce the prevalence of HIV among migrants for a successful control of the HIV epidemic in Far-Western Nepal.


Related Articles

  • HIV-Based Persecution in Asylum and Immigration Decisions. Neilson, Victoria // Human Rights;Fall2004, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p8 

    This article focuses on HIV status as a basis for asylum claim or immigrant decisions in the U.S. Since 1987, the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act labels HIV a communicable disease of public health significance, rendering those living with HIV/AIDS inadmissible. Applicants for temporary...

  • Panel -- Overcoming exclusion: current research and legal issues in Canadian immigration policy for people living with HIV.  // HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review;Oct2010, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p84 

    The article presents abstracts on Canadian immigration policy for people living with HIV which include analysis of HIV testing policy, and challenging the excessive demand barrier for HIV-positive newcomers.

  • Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, an Epidemic Out of Control: Personal Reflections. Sande, Merle A. // Journal of Infectious Diseases;3/15/99 Supplement 2, Vol. 179, pS387 

    Examines the worldwide problem of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Estimated number of persons living with HIV infection at the end of 1997; Origin of HIV; Successful attempts to intervene in the transmission of HIV.

  • CE/CME questions.  // AIDS Alert;Jun2008, Vol. 23 Issue 6, p71 

    A quiz about HIV infection is presented.

  • Plasma HIV viral load in patients with hemophilia and late-stage HIV Disease: A measure of... Engels, Eric A.; Rosenberg, Philip S. // Annals of Internal Medicine;08/17/99, Vol. 131 Issue 4, p256 

    Discusses the relationship between plasma HIV viral load and subsequent risk for disease progression in patients with late-stage HIV disease. HIV viral load as strong predictor of AIDS-related illness; Linear relation between viral load and risk for AIDS-related illness; Viral load prediction...

  • CE/CME questions.  // AIDS Alert;Apr2007, Vol. 22 Issue 4, p47 

    A quiz regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is presented.

  • Discrimination fuels rise of HIV in Philippines.  // Filipino Post;7/12/2012, p10 

    The article reports on the increasing numbers of HIV cases in the Philippines which is attributed to the discrimination against homosexuals and people who are already infected with HIV.

  • Unfolding Story. Meyer, Charles R. // Minnesota Medicine; 

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue including one on the care of geriatric HIV patients, one on the potential decrease of incidents rate in sexually transmitted HIV in the U.S., and one on disease inferno in Africa and other parts of the Third World.

  • Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Envelope Subtypes A and D on Disease Progression in a Large Cohort of HIV-1-Positive Persons in Uganda. Kaleebu, Pontiano; French, Neil; Mahe, Cedric; Yirell, David; Watera, Christine; Lyagoba, Fred; Nakiyingi, Jessica; Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Morgan, Dilys; Weber, Jonathan; Gilks, Charles; Whitworth, Jimmy // Journal of Infectious Diseases;5/1/2002, Vol. 185 Issue 9, p1244 

    The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type I envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression was investigated in 1045 adults in Uganda. At enrollment and every 6 months, a clinical history, examination, and laboratory investigations that included CD4 cell counts were done. HIV-1...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics