The Candy Smell Test in clinical routine

Haxel, Boris R.; Bertz-Duffy, Shannon; Faldum, Andreas; Trellakis, Sokrates; Stein, Bernhard; Renner, Bertold; Kobal, Gerd; Letzel, Stephan; Mann, Wolf J.; Muttray, Axel
July 2011
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy;Jul/Aug2011, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p145
Academic Journal
Background: The 'Candy Smell Test' (CST) has been introduced as a new testing method for the evaluation of the human sense of smell. In contrast to other established orthonasal smell tests, the CST addresses the retronasal application of odors, typical for food aroma effects during mastication and swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CST in a clinical setting in patients with olfactory dysfunction and normal controls against the Sniffin' Sticks test. Furthermore, cutoff points for normal and pathological results in the CST should be determined. Methods: The olfactory performance of 96 patients presenting with olfactory disorders and 71 healthy controls was evaluated with the CST-comprised of 23 different aromatized smell candies and the extended Sniffin' Sticks test (threshold, discrimination, and identification). The control group was gender matched but included also younger persons. Results: The tested subjects could easily understand the procedures and were motivated to participate. The CST correlated well with the Sniffin' Sticks for all tested subjects and for patients (n = 96) and controls (n = 71). The proposed cutoff value to differentiate normosmia from hyposmia in the CST was a score of <16 (i.e., 16 correctly identified odors) of 23. A score below 13 in the CST was the cutoff value for anosmia. Conclusion: The CST is an easy-to-handle reliable tool to investigate retronasal olfaction suited for clinical determination of normosmia, hyposmia, and ansomia. In addition, it can be used for investigation where self-application is necessary such as in large survey studies.


Related Articles

  • Sensory-Specific Satiation With a Pinched Nose and Eyes Closed: Testing the Sensory Modality Specificity of Satiation. Havermans, Remco C.; Mallach, Anna-Theresa // Chemical Senses;Feb2014, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p177 

    Sensory-specific satiation refers to the decrease in pleasantness derived from a consumed food relative to other unconsumed foods. In the current study, it was investigated to what extent sensory-specific satiation is modality specific. To this end, 80 female participants ate a preferred snack...

  • Cell and molecular biology of olfaction. Rawson, Nancy E. // Quintessence International;May1999, Vol. 30 Issue 5, p335 

    Genetics, experience, environment, and health can all affect the anatomic and physiologic components of the olfactory system and thereby influence olfactory performance. Large individual differences exist among subjects with respect to olfactory sensitivity and identification ability, which may...

  • A New Way to Measure the Sense of Smell.  // National Geographic;Feb99, Vol. 195 Issue 2, Preceding p2 

    Reports on the technology used to treat hyposmia, or the reduced ability to smell. Technology used to measure the loss and to demonstrate visually the difference between a hyposmic patient and a person with a normal sense of smell; Work of Robert I. Henkin with functional magnetic resonance...

  • The unbearable absence of smelling. O'Hare, Mick // New Scientist;9/24/2005, Vol. 187 Issue 2518, p42 

    Presents the author's experience of losing his sense of smell. Information that his sudden loss of sense of smell had nothing to do with cold; Advice of general practitioner not helping; Information that he regained his sense of smell later.

  • Loss of sense of smell can predict five-year mortality.  // GP: General Practitioner;10/13/2014, p1 

    Losing the ability to distinguish between scents could be a predictor of five-year mortality, a study suggests.

  • Memory for Odors and Odor Names: Modalities of Elaboration and Imagery. Lyman, Brian J.; McDaniel, Mark A. // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Jul90, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p656 

    This article presents information on a study which examined memory for common odors and odor names that were encoded with visual, verbal, and olfactory elaborations. Naming benefits olfactory memory by augmenting the olfactory code with a verbal code. Similarly, according to dual coding theory,...

  • Anosmia by Any Other Name. Dunkel, Tom // Smithsonian;Mar2005, Vol. 35 Issue 12, p108 

    Discusses the condition anosmia, the medical term for an inability to smell. Experience of the author, who has anosmia; Importance of smells and odors; Lack of olfactory receptor cells in his nasal passage; Way that olfaction declines over time.

  • Making Sense of Scents.  // Neurology Reviews;Jan2007, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p18 

    The article focuses on the capacity of the brain in determining similar smells through passive experience. According to the study of new researchers at the Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, the brain is capable of differentiating the smells. They found out that prolonged sensory...

  • Explicit Sensory Training Improves the Olfactory Sensitivity of Wine Experts. Tempere, S.; Cuzange, E.; Bougeant, J.; Revel, G.; Sicard, G. // Chemosensory Perception;Jun2012, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p205 

    Wine quality is first assessed by experts who evaluate the sensory characteristics of the product using sensory skills. Several studies have shown considerable variation in chemosensory human capacities, including wine tasting experts. Some of them show high olfactory detection thresholds for...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics