TITLE

The Seeds of Negativity: Knowledge and Money

AUTHOR(S)
Lovett, Mitchell J.; Shachar, Ron
PUB. DATE
May 2011
SOURCE
Marketing Science;May/Jun2011, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p430
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
This paper studies the tendency to use negative ads. For this purpose, we focus on an interesting industry (political campaigns) and an intriguing empirical regularity (the tendency to "go negative" is higher in close races). We present a model of electoral competition in which ads inform voters either of the good traits of the candidate or of the bad traits of his opponent. We find that in equilibrium, the proportion of negative ads depends on both voters' knowledge and the candidate's budget. Furthermore, for an interesting subset of the parameter space, negativity increases in both knowledge and budget. Using data on the elections for the U.S. House of Representative in 2000, 2002, and 2004, we examine the model and its implications. Using nonstructural estimation, we find that negativity indeed increases in both voters' knowledge and the candidate's budget. Furthermore, we also find that knowledge and budget mediate the effect of closeness on negativity. Using structural estimation, we reinforce these findings. Specifically, we find that the model's parameters are within the subset of the parameter space discussed above. Thus, the evidence implies that the model is not only helpful in identifying variables that were ignored by previous studies (i.e., knowledge and budget) but also in explaining an intriguing empirical regularity.
ACCESSION #
61220871

 

Related Articles

  • It's All in the Name: Source Cue Ambiguity and the Persuasive Appeal of Campaign Ads. Weber, Christopher; Dunaway, Johanna; Johnson, Tyler // Political Behavior;Sep2012, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p561 

    As strategies for campaign political advertising become more complex, there remains much to learn about how ad characteristics shape voter reactions to political messages. Drawing from existing literature on source credibility, we expect ad sponsorship will have meaningful effects on voter...

  • Rules must shine light on 'dark money'. Townsend, Alair // Crain's New York Business;2/24/2014, Vol. 30 Issue 8, p0011 

    The article focuses on the proposed regulations by the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama that will prohibit direct electioneering and restricts grant to 501(c)(4) organizations that involved in political campaigns. It stresses the concerns that the rules will restrain the sponsorship...

  • An Elite Theory of Political Consulting and Its Implications for U.S. House Election Competition. Cain, Sean // Political Behavior;Sep2011, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p375 

    Does the hiring of political consultants make election races more competitive? If so, why? Most scholars of political consulting argue their expertise enhances competition; I argue that consultant reputation also boosts competition. Many political consultants are part of the Washington...

  • The New Negative. Laguens, Dawn; Flowers, Sarah // Campaigns & Elections (1996);Feb2007, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p32 

    The authors focus on negative campaigning. They state that negative advertisements played less of a role in the major victories and defeats of the 2006 U.S. election cycle. They believe that getting voters to like a candidate's opponent the least no longer guarantees success. They claim that...

  • A Rundown of the Most Competitive House Races. Cook, Charlie // National Journal;7/17/99, Vol. 31 Issue 29, p2110 

    Focuses on a rundown of the most competitive races for the House of Representatives in the 1999-2000 election campaign in the United States. Connecticut; Michigan; California. INSET: Races to Watch.

  • After budget deal, party focus shifts to 1998 vote. Feldmanm, Linda // Christian Science Monitor;8/1/97, Vol. 89 Issue 173, p3 

    Offers predictions about the 1998 election for members of the US House of Representatives and information about how the election is impacting the actions of current House members in 1997. Outlook for continued Republican control of the House; Comments from Charles Cook, a political analyst who...

  • Turnout and presidential coattails in congressional elections. Godbout, Jean-François // Public Choice;Oct2013, Vol. 157 Issue 1/2, p333 

    Estimating the impact of turnout on House election results is problematic because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. The following study proposes an instrumental approach to correct for these problems by using a series of fixed effects two-stage least squares panel-data regression models...

  • Elements of Negativity: Volume and Proportion in Exposure to Negative Advertising. Stevens, Daniel // Political Behavior;Sep2009, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p429 

    Recent studies contend that negative advertising benefits voters. However, these studies only measure the volume of negativity in campaigns, often relying on survey data on voter behavior coupled with estimates of negative ad exposure. Theories of information processing indicate that the...

  • How much is too much? Ackerman, Jim // Enterprise/Salt Lake City;10/1/2012, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p7 

    The author shares his views on the political campaign strategies of the U.S. Republican and Democratic parties for the November 2012 election. He compares how the two political parties are spending their campaign funds. He comments on the strategy of advertisers to run their advertisements on...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics