Determination of the Bioavailable Fraction of Cu and Zn in Soils Amended with Biosolids as Determined by Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT), BCR Sequential Extraction, and Ryegrass Plant

Ahumada, Inés; Ascar, Loreto; Pedraza, Cristina; Vásquez, Viviana; Carrasco, Adriana; Richter, Pablo; Brown, Sally
July 2011
Water, Air & Soil Pollution;Jul2011, Vol. 219 Issue 1-4, p225
Academic Journal
This study assessed the effect of biosolids applied at rates, 0, 30, 45, and 60 Mg ha on the chemical associations and bioavailability of Cu and Zn in soils from an important agricultural zone of the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in soils: ryegrass ( Lolium perenne) plants, diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, and Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. The DGT effective concentration ( C) and sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in ryegrass plants as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Zn was higher in comparison to Cu for all treatments. Concentrations were within the limits set by the Chilean regulations for land-applied biosolids. Metals in the control soil were primarily found in the residual fraction of soils. Biosolids application generally decreased this fraction, with a subsequent increase observed mainly in the acid soluble fraction. The contents of Cu and Zn in ryegrass plants increased with increasing rates of biosolids. Comparison of the Cu and Zn content in ryegrass plants with C, showed a good correlation for Zn. However, the C for soil Cu was only related to plant Cu for some of the soils studied. Correlation between Zn in ryegrass plants and the labile fraction of Zn as measured by the sequential extraction was excellent, with correlation coefficients >0.9, while for Cu, correlation coefficients were lower.


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