Interaction of Onset and Duration of Diabetes on the Percent of GAD and IA-2 Antibody-Positive Subjects in the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium Database

April 2011
Diabetes Care;Apr2011, Vol. 34 Issue 4, p988
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVE--GAD antibodies (GADA) are more common in type 1 diabetic subjects diagnosed at an older age, whereas insulinoma-antigen 2 antibodies (IA-2A) are more common in subjects with younger onset. The prevalence of both antibodies decreases with longer duration of type 1 diabetes. We evaluated the interaction between age of diagnosis (onset) and duration of diabetes on the percentage of GADA- and IA-2A-positive subjects. RESEARCN DESIGN AND METNODS--Data were used from 5,020 individuals with type 1 diabetes obtained from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium dataset. The percentages of GADA- and IA-2A-positive subjects were modeled with duration as the continuous independent variable using a modified spline. RESULTS--Within the first 5 years from diagnosis, 19.4% of individuals (median age 13 years) had neither GADA nor IA-2A, and by 6 to 13 years after diagnosis (median age 18 years), 31.7% were antibody-negative. There was no significant interaction between onset of disease and duration of diabetes for IA-2A (P = 0.30). The interaction was significant for GADA (P = 0.0002), resulting from differences in subjects diagnosed at or older than age 14. For these individuals, there was no apparent effect of duration of disease on the percentage of GADA-positive subjects within the first 5 years of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS--Onset and duration of diabetes both have an important effect on antibody status. The interaction of onset and duration on GADA positivity, but not on IA-2A, suggests differences in biology. These data provide a context for clinicians to interpret results of autoantibody testing in clinical practice.


Related Articles

  • LADA China Study 1: Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) in China. Zhou, Zhiguang; Yang, Lin; Xiang, Yufei; Huang, Gan; Yan, Xiang; Peng, Hui; Liu, Zhenqui; Hagopian, William; Leslie, R. D. G. // Diabetes;Jun2007 Supplement 1, Vol. 56, pA275 

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and in the young (LADY) is prevalent in Caucasian populations. No data has been collected prospectively and extensively from China. The LADA China Study 1, begun in June 2006, aims to define the prevalence of LADA and LADY in 46 centers from 25 cities...

  • Autoantibodies and High-Risk HLA Susceptibility Markers in First-Degree Relatives of Brazilian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Progression to Disease Based Study. Alves, L.; Davini, E.; Correia, M.; Fukui, R.; Santos, R.; Cunha, M.; Rocha, D.; Volpini, W.; Silva, M. // Journal of Clinical Immunology;Aug2012, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p778 

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of autoantibodies to heterogeneous islet-cell cytoplasmic antigens (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA)-and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II markers (HLA-DR...

  • Antibodies to IA-2 and GAD65 in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: isotype restriction and polyclonality. Hawa, Mohammed I.; Fava, Danila; Medici, Francesco; Deng, Yang-Jia; Notkins, Abner L.; De Mattia, Giancarlo; Leslie, R. David G.; Hawa, M I; Fava, D; Medici, F; Deng, Y J; Notkins, A L; De Mattia, G; Leslie, R D // Diabetes Care;Feb2000, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p228 

    Objective: To determine the isotypes and clonality of antibodies to GAD (GADA) and IA-2 (IA-2A) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Research Design and Methods: We studied the following consecutive series of patients who attended a diabetes center for antibodies...

  • Simultaneous onset of type 1 diabetes in monozygotic twins younger than 1 year. Uchida, Noriko; Amano, Yoshiro; Akazawa, Yohei; Nakamura, Shinichi; Minami, Isaki; Washizawa, Kazuhiko; Wakabayashi, Yasunobu; Yasui, Kozo // European Journal of Pediatrics;Feb2008, Vol. 167 Issue 2, p161 

    This report describes type 1 insulin deficient diabetes mellitus (IDDM) arising in identical twins aged under one year. One twin presented with symptoms and was diagnosed with type 1 IDDM; the diagnosis of type 1 IDDM was simultaneously made in the second twin without clinical symptoms. Both...

  • Phenotypic characteristics of GAD antibody-positive recently diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes in North America and Europe. Zinman, Bernard; Kahn, Steven E.; Haffner, Steven M.; O'Neill, M. Colleen; Heise, Mark A.; Freed, Martin I.; ADOPT Study Group // Diabetes;Dec2004, Vol. 53 Issue 12, p3193 

    A number of patients with type 2 diabetes are GAD antibody positive. A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT) is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in recently diagnosed drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes that allows for the evaluation of GAD positivity in the context of...

  • Analiza tkankowo swoistej odpowiedzi humoralnej u chorych z cukrzycÄ… idiopatycznÄ… typu 1. Wegner, Olga; Wyka, Krystyna; Czerniawska, Elżbieta; Bodalski, Jerzy; Młynarski, Wojciech // Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism;2008, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p19 

    Introduction: According to the WHO classification, type 1 diabetes is divided into type 1A - autoimmune and type 1B - idiopathic. The pathogenesis of the latter remains unknown. Clinical observations confirm that type 1 diabetes is often associated with the presence of other organ-specific...

  • Case Study: Diagnosis of Insulinoma Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in a Patient With Diabetes. Sapountzi, Paraskevi; Charnogursky, Gerald; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Murphy, Donna; Nabhan, Fadi; Emanuele, Nicholas V. // Clinical Diabetes;Summer2005, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p140 

    Presents a case study of a female college student who was brought by her parents for evaluation of hypoglycemia. Her medical history including a diagnosis of diabetes by oral glucose tolerance test; Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitor her blood sugar; Significance of...

  • Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Specific to GAD65 Autoantibody Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse. Xin Wang; Aixia Zhang; Yu Liu; Shi Chen; Zhenqing Feng; Wenbin Shang; Maziarz, Marlena; Radtke, Jared; Hampe, Christiane S. // PLoS ONE;Feb2012, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p1 

    Overt autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) are a characteristic in patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) directed to GAD65Ab effectively prevent the binding of GAD65 to GAD65Ab in healthy individuals. Levels of...

  • GAD antibody in mitochondrial diabetes associated with tRNA(UUR) mutation at position 3271. Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Taniyama, Matsuo; Shimada, Akira; Atumi, Yoshihito; Matsuoka, Kempei; Oka, Yoshitomo // Diabetes Care;Jun2002, Vol. 25 Issue 6, p1097 

    Discusses the glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody in mitochondrial diabetes associated with transfer RNA[sup(UUR)] mutation at position 3271. Results of the study on the possible association of pancreatic autoimmunity with mitochondrial diabetes; Information on a family having mitochondrial...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics