Bioactive Coating of Titanium Surfaces with Recombinant Human β -Defensin- 2 (rHuβD2) May Prevent Bacterial Colonization in Orthopaedic Surgery

Pfeufer, Nadine Y.; Hofmann-Peiker, Karsten; Muhle, Mike; Warnke, Patrick H.; Weigel, Martin C.; Kleine, Michael
May 2011
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume;5/4/2011, Vol. 93-A Issue 9, p840
Academic Journal
Background: A promising strategy to prevent infections around orthopaedic titanium implants is to use naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) such as, the human β-defensin-2 as antibacterial coatings. Human antimicrobial peptides represent a part of the innate immune system and have a broad antimicrobial spectrum against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Methods: In the present study, titanium surfaces were functionalized by four different self-assembled monolayers (SAM5) forming methoxy si lanes: (1) hexadecyltrimethoxysi lane; (2) dimethoxymethyloctylsi lane, (3) allyltrimethylsi lane, and (4) 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. In addition, calf skin type-I collagen was cross-linked to the SAM surface 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane by means of two different treatments: (1) N-hydroxysuccinimide and (2)glutaraldehyde. The functionalized titanium surfaces were coated with recombinant human β-defensin-2 (rHuβD2), an antimicrobial peptide, and were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia co/i. The release of rHuβD2 was quantified by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The coating of functionalized titanium surfaces with rHuβD2 was successful. Recombinant HuβD2 was eluted from the titanium surfaces continuously, yielding antimicrobial activity up to several hours. Antimicrobial activity with a killing rate of 100% was observed for all functionalized titanium surfaces after two hours of incubation. The dimethoxy- methyloctylsilane-functionalized titanium surface delivered 0.65 ig of rHuβD2 after six hours with a 60% bacterial killing rate. The silane-functionalized surfaces exhibited a faster release of antimicrobially active rHuβD2 compared with col- lagen modifications. Conclusions: Natural antibiotics such as rHuβD2 integrated into the metal surface of titanium implants may be a promising tool to prevent and control infections around orthopaedic implants.


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