TITLE

An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia

AUTHOR(S)
Webster, Julia; Theodoratou, Evropi; Nair, Harish; Seong, Ang Choon; Zgaga, Lina; Huda, Tanvir; Johnson, Hope L.; Madhi, Shabir; Rubens, Craig; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Arifeen, Shams El; Krause, Ryoko; Jacobs, Troy A.; Brooks, Abdullah W.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor
PUB. DATE
January 2011
SOURCE
BMC Public Health;2011 Supplement 3, Vol. 11 Issue Suppl 3, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) or pneumococcus is estimated to cause 821,000 child deaths each year. It has over 90 serotypes, of which 7 to 13 serotypes are included in current formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that are efficacious in young children. To further reduce the burden from SP pneumonia, a vaccine is required that could protect children from a greater diversity of serotypes. Two different types of vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia are currently at varying stages of development: a multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covering additional SP serotypes; and a conserved common pneumococcal protein antigen (PPA) vaccine offering protection for all serotypes. Methods: We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging SP vaccines relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; efficacy and effectiveness; cost of development, production and implementation; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential for disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their "collective optimism" towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results: The experts expressed very high level of optimism (over 80%) that low-cost polysaccharide conjugate SP vaccines would satisfy each of the 9 relevant CHNRI criteria. The median potential effectiveness of conjugate SP vaccines in reduction of overall childhood pneumonia mortality was predicted to be about 25% (interquartile range 20-38%, min. 15%, max 45%). For low cost, cross-protective common protein vaccines for SP the experts expressed concerns over answerability (72%) and the level of development costs (50%), while the scores for all other criteria were over 80%. The median potential effectiveness of common protein vaccines in reduction of overall childhood pneumonia mortality was predicted to be about 30% (interquartile range 26-40%, min. 20%, max 45%). Conclusions: Improved SP vaccines are a very promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child mortality world-wide.
ACCESSION #
60440506

 

Related Articles

  • Clinical efficacy of anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients with COPD. Alfageme, I.; Vazquez, R.; Reyes, N.; Muñoz, J.; Fernández, A.; Hernandez, M.; Merino, M.; Perez, J.; Lima, J. // Thorax;Mar2006, Vol. 61 Issue 3, p189 

    Background: A study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPY) in immunocompetent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A randomised controlled trial was carried out in 596 patients with COPD of mean...

  • Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine -- United States, 1997-2006. Grijalva, J. P.; Griffin, M. R.; Nuorti, J. P.; Walter, N. D. // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;1/16/2009, Vol. 58 Issue 1, p1 

    The article provides information on all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). It says that the rate for all-cause pneumonia among children aged 2-4 years did not change after PCV7 licensure and has remained stable....

  • Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) Coverage Among Children Aged ≤59 Months -- Selected U.S. Regions, 2010-2011. Harriman, Kathleen; Thomas, Tracy N.; Cullen, Karen; Pabst, Laura; Shefer, Abigail; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Kolasa, Maureen; Cox, Chad; Moore, Matthew // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;11/4/2011, Vol. 60 Issue 43, p1477 

    The article focuses on recommendations published by Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of a newly licensed, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. The vaccine is meant for all children aged 14 through 59 months. It informs on...

  • Infants too young to receive pneumococcal conjugate vaccine benefit from herd immunity. Carter, R. J. F. // Thorax;Jul2006, Vol. 61 Issue 7, p610 

    The article reports that infants too young to receive a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) are benefiting from herd immunity. Evidence has shown that the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children younger than 2 years has reduced since the introduction of PCV7....

  • PCV7 may have reduced pneumococcal infections among White Mountain Apache population. Volansky, Rob // Infectious Diseases in Children;Sep2008, Vol. 21 Issue 9, p26 

    The article discusses research being done on pneumococcal infections. It references a study by R. Lacapa et al, published in a 2008 issue of "Clinical Infectious Diseases." Study findings revealed that the incidence of pneumococcal infections among White Mountain Apache children has declined...

  • Routine pneumococcal vaccination reasonably cost effective in Spain.  // PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News;3/26/2005, Issue 474, p9 

    Discusses research being done on the cost effectiveness of routine pneumococcal vaccination in Spain. Reference to a study by E. Navas et al, published in the March 18, 2005 issue of the "Vaccine" journal; Effectiveness of routine vaccination in preventing cases of invasive pneumococcal disease...

  • Preventability of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Assessment of Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations for Adults: United States, 2001-2003. Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher D.; Wun-Jun Shieh; Packard, Michelle M.; Mitesh Patel; Montague, Jeltley L.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Bhat, Niranjan; Balish, Amanda; Lindstrom, Stephen; Klimov, Alexander; Zaki, Sherif R. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;7/15/2006, Vol. 43 Issue 2, p141 

    Background. To prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection among persons at highest risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for persons ≥65 years old and persons 2-64 years old with certain underlying conditions....

  • Improving rates of pneumococcal vaccination on discharge from a tertiary center medical teaching unit: A prospective intervention. Thomas, Chandra M.; Loewen, Andrea; Coffin, Carla; Campbell, Norman R. C. // BMC Public Health;2005, Vol. 5, p110 

    Background: Pneumococcal disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in at-risk individuals, and is complicated by emerging antibiotic resistance. An effective, safe and cost-effective vaccine is available, but despite this many patients who would benefit from pneumococcal vaccination...

  • New Safety Information for an Old Vaccine. Whitney, Cynthia G. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;6/15/2005, Vol. 40 Issue 12, p1736 

    The article focuses on pneumococcal vaccines. capsule. A version targeting 6 capsular serotypes (the 6-valent vaccine) was used briefly during World War II. A 14-valent version was licensed in 1977 and was followed by a 23-valent formulation in 1983. The 23-valent version is currently in use,...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics