The thermodynamics of meniscus formation on wilhelmy plate immersion at the air/water interface and the mechanics of initial film deposition

Tumavitch, Nicholas J.; Cadenhead, D. Allan; Spencer, Brian J.
January 2000
AIP Conference Proceedings;2000, Vol. 504 Issue 1, p854
Academic Journal
The meniscus which forms when a solid is immersed in a liquid is supported by the upward acting surface tension of the liquid. Reducing the surface tension reduces the magnitude of the meniscus while reducing the gravitational pull will increase it. Edge effects can reduce the overall meniscus height, and the maximum height will only be achieved when the surface exceeds a minimum length. The shape of the meniscus at any point is given by an equation derived by minimizing the free energy of the system. From our observations of static menisci and our numerical study of the equations for the meniscus shape, we found that solids with identical sides will have identical menisci on each face, while solids where the width and the thickness differ will give a meniscus which will involve a contact angle change at and along the edge which can not be described by the classical theory. This observation has important implications for solid/liquid contact at corners in both normal and reduced gravity environments. Deposition of an insoluble film on the liquid surface results in a lowering of the surface tension and the size of the meniscus. If the solid surface is coated by a liquid film then the contact angle will not change during this process. Direct contact between the deposited film and the solid will give rise to a contact angle change. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.


Related Articles

  • The atomic detail of an evaporating meniscus. Freund, Jonathan B. // Physics of Fluids;Feb2005, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p022104 

    Atomistic simulations of a simple Lennard-Jones fluid are used to investigate the very near-wall dynamics and thermodynamics of evaporating menisci. The specific configuration considered is a two-dimensional (in the mean) liquid drop centered on a cold spot on an atomically smooth solid wall...

  • Capillary shaping of crystals pulled downward from a melt by the crucibleless AHP method. Yuferev, V. S. // Crystallography Reports;Dec2008, Vol. 53 Issue 7, p1214 

    A model is proposed for capillary shaping of a crystal in the crucibleless variant of the AHP (axial heat flux close to the phase interface) method when the melt in the form of a film flowing over the AHP heater is fed to a meniscus. The meniscus and the film of the melt are described by the...

  • Surface Tension of a Liquid under the Conditions of a Fast Surface Renewal during Evaporation. Bulanov, N. V.; Skripov, V. P. // Colloid Journal;Sep/Oct2003, Vol. 65 Issue 5, p531 

    A new capillary method of measuring surface tension σ under the conditions of a fast surface renewal due to evaporation is considered. At the highest rates reached for n-pentane and water evaporation (0.6 and 0.14 kg m–2 s–1, respectively), the deviations of σ from its...

  • Critical behavior of the meniscus in helium crystals. Keshishev, K.O.; Sorokin, V.N.; Shemyatikhin, D.B. // JETP Letters;Mar2007, Vol. 85 Issue 3, p179 

    The equilibrium shape of the interface between superfluid and crystalline 4He near the (0001) orientation is analyzed. A feature is observed in the edge angle as a function of the wall inclination with respect to the gravitational field. The step energy on the basal plane of the crystal is measured.

  • An overset grid method for the study of reflex tearing. Maki, K. L.; Braun, R. J.; Driscoll, T. A.; King-Smith, P. E. // Mathematical Medicine & Biology: A Journal of the IMA;Sep2008, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p1 

    We present an overset grid method to simulate the evolution of human tear film thickness subject to reflex tearing. The free-surface evolution is governed by a single fourth-order non-linear equation derived from lubrication theory with specified film thickness and volume flux at each end. The...

  • Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras. Kuiper, S.; Hendriks, B. H. W. // Applied Physics Letters;8/16/2004, Vol. 85 Issue 7, p1128 

    The meniscus between two immiscible liquids can be used as an optical lens. A change in curvature of this meniscus by electrowetting leads to a change in focal distance. It is demonstrated that two liquids in a tube form a self-centered lens with a high optical quality. The motion of the lens...

  • Numerical Simulation on Coalescence Between a Pair of Drops on Homogeneous Horizontal Surface with Volume-of-Fluid Method. Hong Wang; Xun Zhu; Qiang Liao; Sui, P. C. // Journal of Superconductivity & Novel Magnetism;Aug2010, Vol. 23 Issue 6, p1137 

    Two-dimensional transient simulations employing the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method are used to investigate the behavior of coalescence between a pair of equal size water droplets on a homogeneous plate surface. The morphological change of the liquid drops and variation of the meniscus liquid...

  • Global and local instability of flow focusing: The influence of the geometry. Vega, Emilio J.; Montanero, José M.; Herrada, Miguel A.; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M. // Physics of Fluids;Jun2010, Vol. 22 Issue 6, p064105 

    In the flow focusing technique, a liquid flow rate Q is injected through a microcapillary to form a meniscus attached to its edge. The meniscus is stretched until a thin jet tapers from its tip due to the action of a gas stream driven by a pressure drop Δp. Both the liquid jet and the gas...

  • Pulling bubbles from a bath. Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E. // Physics of Fluids;Jun2010, Vol. 22 Issue 6, p061705 

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics