Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy

Luce, T. C.
March 2011
Physics of Plasmas;Mar2011, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p030501
Academic Journal
Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.


Related Articles

  • Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas. Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung // AIP Conference Proceedings;5/25/2012, Vol. 1438 Issue 1, p222 

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion...

  • On tokamak equilibria with a zero current or negative current central region. Chu, M. S.; Parks, P. B. // Physics of Plasmas;Dec2002, Vol. 9 Issue 12, p5036 

    Several tokamak experiments have reported the development of a central region with vanishing currents (the current hole). The straightforward application of results from the work of Greene, Johnson and Weimer [Phys. Fluids 14, 671 (1971)] on a tokamak equilibrium to these plasmas leads to the...

  • On the use of critical gradient models in fusion plasma transport studies. Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Sánchez, R. // Physics of Plasmas;Jun2006, Vol. 13 Issue 6, p062301 

    Transport models for tokamak devices are often based on transport coefficients involving a critical threshold condition. In this paper, it is argued that the validation of such models against experimental data requires special care when the system profiles are close to this threshold (at some...

  • Simulation of electron thermal transport in H-mode discharges. Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Halpern, F. D. // Physics of Plasmas;Mar2009, Vol. 16 Issue 3, p032505 

    Electron thermal transport in DIII-D H-mode tokamak plasmas [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated by comparing predictive simulation results for the evolution of electron temperature profiles with experimental data. The comparison includes the entire profile from the...

  • Erratum: 'A novel local equilibrium model for shaped tokamak plasmas' [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072520 (2012)]. Yu, Weihong; Zhou, Deng; Xiang, Nong // Physics of Plasmas;Dec2012, Vol. 19 Issue 12, p129901 

    No abstract available.

  • Development and application of multichannel collective scattering systems. Park, H.; Brower, D. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Luhmann, N. C.; Savage, R. L.; Yu, C. X. // Review of Scientific Instruments;May85, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p1055 

    The numerous applications of cw collective Thomson scattering in fusion plasmas are greatly enhanced by the addition of a multichannel capability. This permits the determination of the dispersive properties (ω vs k) of waves on a single tokamak discharge. This paper describes the...

  • Freezing and melting of 3D complex plasma structures driven by neutral gas pressure manipulation in PK-3 Plus experiment. Khrapak, S. A.; Klumov, B. A.; Huber, P.; Molotkov, V. I.; Lipaev, A. M.; Naumkin, V. N.; Thomas, H. M.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Malentschenko, Yu.; Volkov, S. // AIP Conference Proceedings;11/28/2011, Vol. 1397 Issue 1, p359 

    We discuss experimental results from the PK-3 Plus facility on solid-fluid phase transitions in complex plasmas.

  • Synergistic cross-scale coupling of turbulence in a tokamak plasma. Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.; White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Candy, J. // Physics of Plasmas;2014, Vol. 21 Issue 11, p1 

    For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations spanning both the ion and electron spatiotemporal scales have been performed with realistic electron mass ratio ((mD/me)1/2 = 60.0), realis-tic geometry, and all experimental inputs, demonstrating the coexistence and synergy of ion (kθps ~...

  • On drift instabilities in magnetized target fusion devices. Ryutov, D. D. // Physics of Plasmas;Sep2002, Vol. 9 Issue 9, p4085 

    Some versions of magnetized target fusion (MTF) devices will be using a high beta plasma, with local beta exceeding 1. Drift instabilities in such a plasma are electromagnetic and are quite different from the analogous instabilities in a low beta plasma. In a collisionless limit they have been...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics