Lower and Upper Extremity Loading in Nordic Walking in Comparison with Walking and Running

Hagen, Marco; Hennig, Ewald M.; Stieldorf, Peter
February 2011
Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2011, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p22
Academic Journal
Nordic walking (NW) was compared with walking (W) and running (R) with respect to upper and lower limb injury risks. 24 NW-instructors performed W, NW, and R trials on a runway covered with artificial turf at controlled speeds. Foot pronation and ground reaction forces were measured as well as shock wave transmission to the right wrist. Comparison of NW and W shows similar results for all of the four chosen velocities (5 km/h, 7 km/h, 8 km/h, 8.5 km/h). Except for the 2nd peak of the vertical ground reaction force, NW results in higher loading rates and horizontal forces as well as higher pronation and pronation velocity values as compared with W. Wrist acceleration values up to 7.6 times gravitational acceleration were recorded in NW. Compared with R at the same speeds (8 km/h and 8.5 km/h), NW can be recommended as low impact sport with 36% lower loading rates and 59% lower pronation velocities. However, the high wrist accelerations in NW reveal that the upper extremities are exposed to considerable repetitive shocks, which may cause overuse injuries of the upper extremities. Thus, additional preventive exercises for the upper limb muscles are recommended as well as using shock absorbing walking poles.


Related Articles

  • Changes in the Preferred Transition Speed With Added Mass to the Foot. MacLeod, Toran D.; Hreljac, Alan; Imamura, Rodney // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2014, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p95 

    This study was conducted to investigate whether adding mass to subjects' feet affects the preferred transition speed (PTS), and to ascertain whether selected swing phase variables (maximum ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity, angular acceleration, joint moment, and joint power) are determinants...

  • Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study. Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter // Nutrients;Feb2011, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p200 

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production...

  • Tai Chi Intervention Improves Dynamic Postural Control During Gait Initiation in Older Adults: A Pilot Study. Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Roberts, Beverly L.; Hass, Chris J. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Dec2014, Vol. 30 Issue 6, p697 

    Tai Chi intervention has been shown to be beneficial for balance improvement. The current study examined the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve the dynamic postural control among older adults with mobility disability. Six sedentary older adults with mobility disability participated in a 16-week...

  • A Comparison of Three-Dimensional Breast Displacement and Breast Comfort During Overground and Treadmill Running. White, Jennifer; Scurr, Joanna; Hedger, Wendy // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2011, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p47 

    Comparisons of breast support requirements during overground and treadmill running have yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate 3D breast displacement and breast comfort during overground and treadmill running. Six female D cup participants had retro-reflective markers...

  • Acute Effect of Front Crawl Sprint Resisted Swimming on the Propulsive Forces of the Hand. Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Mavridis, Georgios; Boli, Alexia; Kasimatis, Panagiotis; Vezos, Nikolaos; Toubekis, Argyris; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Mavrommatis, Georgios // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Feb2013, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p98 

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of sprint resisted front crawl swimming on the propulsive forces of the hand. Eight female swimmers swam 25 m with maximal intensity, with and without added resistance. A bowl with a capacity of 2.2, 4 and 6 L was used as low,...

  • Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance. Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E. // Nutrients;Jul2014, Vol. 6 Issue 7, p2931 

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body...

  • Varying Treadmill Speed and Inclination Affects Spontaneous Synchronization When Two Individuals Walk Side by Side. Nessler, Jeff A.; Kephart, Gerald; Cowell, Jason; De Leone, Charles J. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;Nov2011, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p322 

    Studying spontaneous synchronization of stepping as two individuals walk on side-by-side treadmills may be useful for understanding the control of bipedal locomotion and may have implications for gait rehabilitation. Existing data suggest that this behavior is related to differences in leg...

  • Effect of low-intensity direct current on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide in diabetic foot ulcers. Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza; Nasiripoor, Faezeh; Torkaman, Giti; Hedayati, Mehdi; Annabestani, Zohreh; Asadi, Mohammad Reza // Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development;2014, Vol. 51 Issue 5, p815 

    This study investigated the effect of low-intensity cathodal direct current on the release of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) in diabetic foot ulceration. Twenty type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulceration and thirteen age-matched healthy subjects were...

  • Differentiation between solid-ankle cushioned heel and energy storage and return prosthetic foot based on step-to-step transition cost. Wezenberg, Daphne; Cutti, Andrea G.; Bruno, Antonino; Houdijk, Han // Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development;2014, Vol. 51 Issue 10, p1579 

    Decreased push-off power by the prosthetic foot and inadequate roll-over shape of the foot have been shown to increase the energy dissipated during the step-to-step transition in human walking. The aim of this study was to determine whether energy storage and return (ESAR) feet are able to...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics