Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Kuzuya, Hideshi
January 2011
BMC Public Health;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p40
Academic Journal
Background: A randomized control trial was performed to test whether a lifestyle intervention program, carried out in a primary healthcare setting using existing resources, can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The results of 3 years' intervention are summarized. Methods: Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.5 kg/m² were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group. Results: After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023) and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045). Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097). In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m², a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027). Conclusions: The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention. Trial registration number: UMIN000003136.


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