Bienen, Henry
April 1969
Foreign Affairs;Apr1969, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p545
This article focuses on the Arusha Declaration, articulated policies designed for the needs of an African country which was created by the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) of Tanzania in January 1967. According to Arusha, TANU stands committed to policies of socialism and self-reliance. Socialism is understood as a social situation which excludes exploitation of one man by another or of one class over another. The major means of production are to be under the control and ownership of the workers and peasants through the agency of the government and through coöperatives. The Arusha Declaration does not aim to create a classless society at the expense of the country's economic development but it gives social goals primacy over more narrowly defined economic ones. It calls for a rectification of a mistaken emphasis in the past on industrial growth, and a new concern with agriculture and rural society in general. The agricultural policy also emphasizes self-reliance in instructing the people to be self-sufficient in food, clothing and housing. Indeed, Arusha is a reaction against Tanzania's incipient tendency to reproduce patterns of development which have become clearer in more economically advanced African countries and which are felt to be inimical to the stated goals of equality, socialism, rural improvement and national control over indigenous resources.


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