Wheeler, Douglas L.
July 1970
Foreign Affairs;Jul1970, Vol. 48 Issue 4, p769
This article the political history of Portugal. Despite the recent waves of tourists who have returned with tales of the beauties and comforts of Lisbon and Estoril, and despite new Luso-American cultural and commercial links, misunderstanding and ignorance characterize much American thought about Portugal. The political history behind the longest surviving authoritarian government in Western Europe is perplexing. When Portugal adopted a constitutional monarchy and a variant of liberalism in the Constitution of 1822, the country was poor, backward and burdened with a pre-industrial economy. In the course of the century, then, the army became the final arbiter of Portuguese politics. In pronunciamentos during the first half of the century, it overthrew governments, won civil wars, backed constitutions, sorted out leadership and sent feuding politicians packing. Though there had been a number of civil wars in the last century and a half, there had been no true revolution. In the postwar era the growth of the Portuguese middle classes became significant.


Related Articles

  • History.  // Portugal Country Review;2011, p6 

    The article provides an overview of the political history of Portugal relative to the founding of the House of Avis, the dynastic crisis in 1580 and the liberal revolution in 1820 .

  • Para Uma História Do Arquivo Secreto Do Vaticano: A propósito da edição da documentação do período da expansão portuguesa do fundo da Nunciatura de Lisboa. Franco, José Eduardo; Pinheiro, Luís // Mentalites;2009, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p51 

    The article explores the significance for the study of Portuguese history of the publication of historical documents from the Secret Archives of the Vatican (Archivum Secretum Vaticanum) held in the Nunciature in Lisbon, Portugal. The authors describe the creation of the secret archive in the...

  • The bourgeois revolution: A mirage? Russell, Conrad // History Today;Sep90, Vol. 40 Issue 9, p7 

    Challenges popular historical theory that the middle classes have played a vital role in revolutionary history. New interpretations of the English Civil War and of the Great Reform Bill of 1832; Flaws in the traditional Marxist model that change comes about by the clash of opposites.

  • Portuguese Contraband and the Closure of the Iberian Markets, 1621-1640. The Economic Roots of an Anti-Habsburg Feeling. Aparicio, Ángel Alloza // E-Journal of Portuguese History;Winter2009, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p1 

    The article discusses how the 1621 protectionist foreign policies of King Philip IV of Spain and Portugal, a member of the Habsburg royal family, led to a rise in the smuggling of contraband goods in Portugal and was eventually to become a cause for the 1640 uprising of Portugal against Habsburg...

  • Two Comments on the Contemporary Period. de Fátima Bonifácio, Maria // E-Journal of Portuguese History;Winter2010, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1 

    The article discusses Portuguese history and the book "História de Portugal," or "The History of Portugal," edited by Rui Ramos, focusing on Part III, written by Ramos. It examines Portugal's economic conditions and what the author refers to as its "economic backwardness," drawing comparisons...

  • Is a 'Middle Class' Forming? Sitnikov, A. // Problems of Economic Transition;Aug2000, Vol. 43 Issue 4, p41 

    Discusses the existence of the middle class in a Russian society. Preconditions of the formation of the middle class; Characteristics of the middle class.

  • Poverty. Colman, Adrian // Youth Studies Australia;Jun2001, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p9 

    Reports on the social classes in Australia. Information on the underclass Australians; Basis of the possibility of political solidarity between the middle class, working class and underclass.

  • Define `middle.' Adams, Kathleen; Lofaro, Lina // Time;2/20/1995, Vol. 145 Issue 7, p16 

    Offers responses from a poll which asked what income people think constitutes a middle-class income.

  • BATTLE FOR THE MIDDLE CLASS.  // Opinion Piece in Macedonian Press;10/25/2013, p1 

    The article discusses a comment about the true protector of Macedonian middle class.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics