Hughes, Thomas L.
January 1967
Foreign Affairs;Jan1967, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p202
Academic Journal
This article discusses the phenomena which have intruded into the very center of foreign-policy-making in the 1960s. The first could be called the two cultures in foreign affairs and the second, in some ways complementary to it, the meeting of horizontal and vertical politics. The traditional professional way of looking at foreign policy is that of late nineteenth-century Europe, which assumed a world of vertically separated sovereign states presided over by good, bad or nondescript governments, internally compartmentalized for policy-making purposes. In those days, at least in theory, responsibilities were fixed. As we have moved from the age of sail to steam and from air to space, amendments to this basic concept have been made to allow for growing complexities and other recent irritations. In the very nature of things bureaucratic, policies run where preferences lead. In the institutional structure of the U.S. government, for example, certain nations achieve a built-in over-representation, a weighted voting constituency. Thus in a sense the facts of foreign policy are not facts, or if they are, they are highly slippery and manipulable. To state it broadly, foreign-policy facts are eminently less satisfying than defense facts or industrial facts.


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