TITLE

The effect of an electronic control device on muscle injury as determined by creatine kinase enzyme

AUTHOR(S)
Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, James D.; Lundin, Erik J.; Kunz, Sebastian N.; Miner, James R.
PUB. DATE
March 2011
SOURCE
Forensic Science, Medicine & Pathology;Mar2011, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p3
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
The medical literature on the effect of electronic control devices (ECD) on muscle injury is sparse. In this paper, we examine pooled data from five human studies that used creatine kinase (CK) as a marker for muscle injury. CK was measured in five separate studies involving four TASER ECDs with different exposure durations and number of circuits or contact points. Device type, exposure duration, number of circuits or contact points, and CK values at baseline and 24 h after exposure were pooled from these previous studies. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation of CK to duration of exposure, number of contact points, and distance between the probes. The pooled results contained 163 subjects. Seven were withdrawn due to incomplete data, leaving 156 subjects for analysis (median age 36, range 19-67, 93.6% male). 121 (77.6%) subjects had 2 contacts points, 10 (6.4%) had 3 contact points, 18 (11.5%) had 4 contact points, and 7 (4.5%) had 6 contact points. 81 (51.9%) subjects had a 5-s exposure, 64 (41.0%) a 10-s exposure, and, 11 (7.1%) a 30-s exposure. Median baseline CK (145 U/l, IQR 104-217, range 12-1956) did not differ between groups ( P = 0.213 for number of contact points, 0.124 for duration). For the number of contacts, the median change in CK for 2 points of contact was 32 (IQR −1 to 1513, range −205 to 1821), for 3 was 1456 (IQR 634-1868, range 101-25452), for 4 was 887 (IQR 285-7481, range −1054 to 7481), and for 6 was 846 (IQR 57-1149, range −8 to 2309), ( P < 0.001). For duration, the median change in CK for 5 s was 26.5 (IQR −8 to 109, range −1054 to 2309), for 10 s was 303 (IQR 34.5-1073, range −205 to 25452), and for 30 s was 47 (IQR 23-82, range −140 to 364), ( P < 0.001). There was a relationship between the number of points of contact and the change in CK ( P < 0.001) but not a relationship between the duration and the change in CK ( P = 0.496). The median spread between the probe pairs for our pooled data was 40 cm, with a range from 18 to 70 cm ( n = 76). The correlation between the change in CK and spread between the probe pairs was 0.16 at baseline ( P = 0.18), and 0.24 at 24 h ( P = 0.04) by Spearman's rank correlation. ECD exposure can cause a modest increase in CK. Although we cannot draw conclusions about the individual devices included in this analysis, our findings indicated that multiple contact points or exposures may result in a larger increase in CK, but the duration of the exposure does not appear to have a significant effect on CK. There is a correlation between the distance between the probes and the change in CK.
ACCESSION #
57766863

 

Related Articles

  • THE OCCURRENCE OF MUSCLE DAMAGE IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS. Senel, �mer; Aky�z, Murat // Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Iasi - Construction & A;2010, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p55 

    The article presents a study which determines the occurrence of muscle damage in male amateur soccer players during game. It notes that muscle damage will cause exhaustion, loss of functionality, and strength. It notes that blood samples were taken six times from the athletes as before the match...

  • Abnormal cardiac enzyme responses after strenuous exercise: alternative diagnostic aids. Ohman, E.M.; Teo, K.K.; Johnson, A.H.; Collins, P.B.; Dowsett, D.G.; Ennis, J.T.; Horgan, J.H. // British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition);11/27/1982, Vol. 285 Issue 6354, p1523 

    Presents diagnostic aids for abnormal cardiac enzyme responses after strenuous exercise in Dublin, Ireland. Use of creatine kinase MB activities isoenzyme as indicators of acute myocardial infraction; Ratio of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme I to isoenzyme II; Difficulty in distinguishing...

  • Muscle damage occurring in wheelchair sports people. Ide, M; Ogata, H; Kobayashi, M; Wada, F // Spinal Cord;Apr1997, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p234 

    Seven college-age healthy men exercised on a wheelchair treadmill to evaluate muscle damage that may occur from wheelchair propulsion. An experimental model in which a participant performs up-hill running in a wheelchair was prepared. Plasma creatinekinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb) and...

  • Muscle damage protection by low-intensity eccentric contractions remains for 2 weeks but not 3 weeks. Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Jan2012, Vol. 112 Issue 2, p555 

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the protective effect conferred by a low-intensity eccentric exercise against maximal eccentric exercise would not last more than a week. Untrained men (21.3 ± 1.6 years) were allocated into either a control or one of four repeated bout groups ( n =...

  • Leukocyte apoptosis and pro-/anti-apoptotic proteins following downhill running. Park, Kyung-Shin; Sedlock, Darlene A.; Navalta, James W.; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Kim, Seung-Hwan // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Aug2011, Vol. 111 Issue 9, p2349 

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and to investigate if the elevation in apoptotic leukocytes was mediated by changes in the concentration of anti-/pro-apoptotic...

  • Effect of Carbohydrate-Protein (CHO-P) Supplement on Attenuation of Muscle Damage Induced by Eccentric Exercise in Turkish Ski Racers. Şen, İlhan // Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Turkiye ;mar2011, Vol. 57 Issue 1, p14 

    Objective: It has been reported that eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage more than other types of exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P) supplement on attenuation of muscle damage during skiing, which mostly...

  • Effect of Walking and Running on the Cardiorespiratory System, Muscle Injury, and the Antioxidant System after 30 Min at the Walk-Run Transition Speed. Verlengia, Rozangela; Cardoso, Lucas de Castro; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Gomes Gonelli, Pamela Roberta; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; de Lima Montebelo, Maria Imaculada; Newsholme, Philip; Cesar, Marcelo de Castro // Journal of Exercise Physiology Online;Oct2012, Vol. 15 Issue 5, p40 

    This study evaluated aerobic capacity and physiological stress during walking and running at the optimal energy transition speed (OETS) in 10 young men with a mean age of 24.2 ± 2.04 yrs. The subjects underwent five cardiorespiratory treadmill tests; one test to determine the maximal aerobic...

  • Effect of Single-Session Aerobic Exercise with Varying Intensities on Lipid Peroxidation and Muscle-Damage Markers in Sedentary Males. Moflehi, Daruosh; Lian-Yee Kok; T.-K., Tengku-Fadilah; Amri, Saidon // Global Journal of Health Science;Jul2012, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p48 

    Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different intensity levels of single-session aerobic exercise on serum levels of lipid peroxidation and muscle damage markers in sedentary males. Method: Fifty one sedentary healthy males aged 21.76±1.89 years were randomly...

  • Effects of Acute Eccentric Exercise Stimulus on Muscle Injury and Adaptation. Frimpong, Emmanuel; Antwi, Daniel Ansong; Asare, George; Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; Dzudzor, Bartholomew // Journal of Exercise Physiology Online;Dec2013, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p18 

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stimulus of acute eccentric aerobic exercise that would elicit minimal muscle injury but adequate to induce muscle tissue adaptation. Twenty healthy subjects were randomized into two groups: (a) the low stimulus eccentric exercise group (LSEEG);...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics