A low-wavenumber-extended confocal Raman microscope with very high laser excitation line discrimination

Lebedkin, Sergei; Blum, Carolin; Stürzl, Ninette; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred M.
January 2011
Review of Scientific Instruments;Jan2011, Vol. 82 Issue 1, p013705
Academic Journal
We describe the simple modification of a confocal Raman imaging microscope to incorporate two ultra-narrow holographic notch filters. The modified microscope rejects the laser excitation line (Rayleigh peak) by a discrimination factor of ∼1011 and allows simultaneous measurements of Stokes/anti-Stokes Raman shifts as close as ∼10/20 cm-1 to the Rayleigh line. The extremely high rejection ratio of the Rayleigh peak results in its intensity becoming comparable to typical Raman scattering signals. This is essential for micro-Raman spectroscopy and imaging in the low-wavenumber region. We illustrate the resulting performance with measurements on silicon/silica, sapphire, sulfur, L-cystine, as well as on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We find that both aggregated (bulk) and individual (deposited on substrate) SWNTs demonstrate strong and broad characteristic Raman features below ∼100 cm-1-in a region which has remained essentially unexplored in measurements of bulk SWNT samples and which has so far been inaccessible for Raman spectroscopy of individual SWNTs.


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