Growth of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis in culture is enhanced by nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and α and β nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Greenstein, Robert; Su, Liya; Brown, Sheldon; Greenstein, Robert J; Brown, Sheldon T
February 2011
Digestive Diseases & Sciences;Feb2011, Vol. 56 Issue 2, p368
Academic Journal
journal article
Background: Without known mechanisms of action, Crohn's disease is exacerbated, and ulcerative colitis is improved, by the use of tobacco. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be zoonotic. We hypothesized that tobacco components might alter the growth kinetics of MAP, explaining these divergent clinical observations.Methods: The effect of nicotine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and α and β nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (α and β NAD) were studied on eight strains of three mycobacterial species (MAP, M. avium and M. tb. complex). Data are obtained as "cumulative growth index," (cGI) and presented as "percent increase in cumulative GI" (% + ΔcGI).Results: Nicotinic acid enhances the two human MAP isolates (Dominic; 225% + ΔcGI and UCF-4; 92% + ΔcGI) and M. avium (ATCC 25291; 175% + ΔcGI). Nicotinamide (at 6.4 µg/ml) enhances the human MAP isolates (Dominic; 156% + ΔcGI and UCF-4; 79% + ΔcGI) and M. avium (ATCC 25291; 144% + ΔcGI.) Both α and β NAD enhance Dominic; (135 and 150 % + ΔcGI) and UCF-4; (81 and 79% + ΔcGI). At the doses tested, nicotine has no effect on any strain studied.Conclusions: We show enhancement of MAP growth by nicotinic acid, one of ≥4,000 tobacco-related molecules, its amide, nicotinamide and α and β NAD. Pure nicotine has no enhancing effect at the doses studies.


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