Phylogenetic Relationships of 3/3 and 2/2 Hemoglobins in Archaeplastida Genomes to Bacterial and Other Eukaryote Hemoglobins

Vinogradov, Serge N.; Fernández, Iván; Hoogewijs, David; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl
January 2011
Molecular Plant (Oxford University Press / USA);Jan2011, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p42
Academic Journal
Land plants and algae form a supergroup, the Archaeplastida, believed to be monophyletic. We report the results of an analysis of the phylogeny of putative globins in the currently available genomes to bacterial and other eukaryote hemoglobins (Hbs). Archaeplastida genomes have 3/3 and 2/2 Hbs, with the land plant genomes having group 2 2/2 Hbs, except for the unexpected occurrence of two group 1 2/2 Hbs in Ricinus communis. Bayesian analysis shows that plant 3/3 Hbs are related to vertebrate neuroglobins and bacterial flavohemoglobins (FHbs). We sought to define the bacterial groups, whose ancestors shared the precursors of Archaeplastida Hbs, via Bayesian and neighbor-joining analyses based on COBALT alignment of representative sets of bacterial 3/3 FHb-like globins and group 1 and 2 2/2 Hbs with the corresponding Archaeplastida Hbs. The results suggest that the Archaeplastida 3/3 and group 1 2/2 Hbs could have originated from the horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) that accompanied the two generally accepted endosymbioses of a proteobacterium and a cyanobacterium with a eukaryote ancestor. In contrast, the origin of the group 2 2/2 Hbs unexpectedly appears to involve HGT from a bacterium ancestral to Chloroflexi, Deinococcales, Bacilli, and Actinomycetes. Furthermore, although intron positions and phases are mostly conserved among the land plant 3/3 and 2/2 globin genes, introns are absent in the algal 3/3 genes and intron positions and phases are highly variable in their 2/2 genes. Thus, introns are irrelevant to globin evolution in Archaeplastida.


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