September 2010
Alcohol Research & Health;2010, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p247
Academic Journal
Both HIV infection and alcohol abuse have negative effects on the brain, with some unique to each condition and others shared by both conditions. Investigators have used magnetic resonance imaging to study the size and integrity of various brain structures in participants with alcoholism, HIV infection, or both conditions and in healthy control subjects. In these studies, alcoholics exhibited enlarged, cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces (i.e., ventricles) as well as tissue shrinkage in various brain regions (e.g., the corpus callosum and frontal cortex), whereas study participants with asymptomatic HIV infection showed few abnormalities. Those with both HIV infection and alcoholism also had these volume abnormalities, particularly if they had experienced an AIDS-defining event. Diffusion tensor imaging, which measures the integrity of white matter fibers, has identified abnormalities of constituents of these fibers in both diseases. Again, people with HIV infection plus alcoholism show the greatest abnormalities, particularly those with a history of an AIDS-defining event. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which assesses the levels of brain metabolites and selective neurotransmitters, has revealed different patterns of deficits in biochemical markers of brain integrity in individuals singly affected and a compounding of effects in individuals with both HIV infection and alcoholism. Finally, neuropsychological studies have revealed impairment in selective functions involving working memory, visuospatial abilities, and movement speed that are especially likely to occur in people with comorbid HIV infection and alcoholism. Thus, alcoholism is a major risk factor for development of neuropathology and its functional sequelae in HIV-infected people INSET: Studying the Brain in the Living Body Using Magnetic Resonance....


Related Articles

  • Risk factors, clinical characteristics and MRI features of cerebral small vessel disease. Cuilan Lv; Jun Yuan; Yuan Yao; Bin Han; Yida Hu // International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Medicine;2016, Vol. 9 Issue 11, p22729 

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics and MRI features associated with cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD). Methods: Patients diagnosed and hospitalized with CSVD between March 2013 and August 2015 were collected. After screening, 100 males and 56 females were...

  • Hypertrophic pachymeningitis in a patient with Takayasu arteritis: One more association? Wattamwar, Pandurang R.; Doshi, Suyog A.; Thomas, Bejoy; Nair, Muralidharan; Kuruvilla, Abraham // Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology;Jan2012, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p56 

    Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the dura mater, described in association with various infections, systemic vasculitides such as Wegener's granulomatosis and giant cell arteritis. However, HP in association with Takayasu arteritis (TA) has not been...

  • Long-Term Findings on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Encephalopathy With Bilateral Striatal Necrosis Associated With Measles. Voudris, Konstantinos A. // Journal of Child Neurology;Oct2002, Vol. 17 Issue 10, p776 

    The long-term findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 710/12-year-old boy with a history of acute encephalopathy with bilateral striatal necrosis following measles at the age of 22 months are described. At the early stage of illness, brain MRI studies revealed bilateral,...

  • Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in the General Population. Ferris, Mary Elina // Internal Medicine Alert;12/15/2007, Vol. 29 Issue 23, p179 

    A prospective, ongoing, population-based study of age-related brain changes investigating inhabitants of a suburb of Rotterdam in the Netherlands started in the year 2000, with 8,000 participants aged 46-98 years receiving MRI brain scans every 2-3 years. A standardized non-contrast brain MRI...

  • High field functional MRI analysis of interictal discharges in malformations of cortical development: role of surround inhibition and subcortical structures.  // Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences;May2003 Supplement 2, Vol. 30, pS25 

    Presents an abstract of the study 'High Field Functional MRI Analysis of Interictal Discharges in Malformations of Cortical Development: Role of Surround Inhibition and Subcortical Structures' submitted to the 38th meeting of the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences.

  • Clinical and Virological Monitoring During Treatment with Intrathecal Cytarabine in Patients with... De Luca, Andrea; Giancola, Maria Letizia; Cingolani, Antonella; Ammassari, Adriana; Gillini, Laura; Murri, Rita; Antinori, Andrea // Clinical Infectious Diseases;3/1/1999, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p624 

    Describes the clinical and virological outcome of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with brain disorder multifocal leukoencephalopathy treated with cytarabine. Evaluability of clinical response; Trend toward better survival among patients with higher CD4 leukocyte cell counts at...

  • The 10-minute test for strokes. Shute, Nancy // U.S. News & World Report;03/30/98, Vol. 124 Issue 12, p69 

    Discusses advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, as of March 30, 1998. Use of MRIs to diagnose strokes; Serious effects of strokes; New MRI technique known as diffusion-weighted imaging; History of MRI technology; MRIs in cognitive neuroscience; Costs of MRIs; Use of MRI to...

  • Hot cross bun sign in HIV-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Cherian, Ajith; Iype, Thomas; Mathew, Mini; Smitha, Sony // Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology;Oct2013, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p672 

    The article explores hot cross bun (HCB) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In the case of a 37-year-old female, she presented with significant weight loss, anorexia and recurrent fevers for six months before magnetic...

  • The importance of neurophysiological assessment in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report of an eclamptic woman. Maccora, S.; Ministeri, C. M.; Fabbri, R.; Fabbri, P. G. // Neurological Sciences;Dec2013, Vol. 34 Issue 12, p2239 

    No abstract available.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics