Outcome of Patients With Type 1 or 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis

Maire, Frédérique; Le Baleur, Yann; Rebours, Vinciane; Vullierme, Marie Pierre; Couvelard, Anne; Voitot, Hélène; Sauvanet, Alain; Hentic, Olivia; Lévy, Philippe; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Hammel, Pascal
January 2011
American Journal of Gastroenterology;Jan2011, Vol. 106 Issue 1, p151
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVES:Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is better described than before, but there is still no international consensus for definition, diagnosis, and treatment. Our aims were to analyze the short- and long-term outcome of patients with focus on pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions, to search for predictive factors of relapse and pancreatic insufficiency, and to compare patients with type 1 and type 2 AIP.METHODS:All consecutive patients followed up for AIP in our center between 1999 and 2008 were included. Two groups were defined: (a) patients with type 1 AIP meeting HISORt (Histology, Imaging, Serology, Other organ involvement, and Response to steroids) criteria; (b) patients with definitive/probable type 2 AIP including those with histologically confirmed idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis ('definitive') or suggestive imaging, normal serum IgG4, and response to steroids ('probable'). AIP-related events and pancreatic exocrine/endocrine insufficiency were looked for during follow-up. Predictive factors of relapse and pancreatic insufficiency were analyzed.RESULTS:A total of 44 patients (22 males), median age 37.5 (19-73) years, were included: 28 patients (64%) with type 1 AIP and 16 patients (36%) with type 2 AIP. First-line treatment consisted of steroids or pancreatic resection in 59 and 27% of the patients, respectively. Median follow-up was 41 (5-130) months. Steroids were effective in all treated patients. Relapse was observed in 12 patients (27%), after a median delay of 6 months (1-70). Four patients received azathioprine because of steroid resistance/dependence. High serum IgG4 level, pain at time of diagnosis, and other organ involvement were associated with relapse (P<0.05). At the end point, pancreatic atrophy was observed in 35% of patients. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies were present in 34 and 39% of the patients, respectively. At univariate analysis, no factor was associated with exocrine insufficiency, although female gender (P=0.04), increasing age (P=0.006), and type 1 AIP (P=0.001) were associated with the occurrence of diabetes. Steroid/azathioprine treatment did not prevent pancreatic insufficiency. Type 2 AIP was more frequently associated with inflammatory bowel disease than type 1 AIP (31 and 3%, respectively), but relapse rates were similar in both groups.CONCLUSIONS:Relapse occurs in 27% of AIP patients and is more frequent in patients with high serum IgG4 levels at the time of diagnosis. Pancreatic atrophy and functional insufficiency occur in more than one-third of the patients within 3 years of diagnosis. The outcome of patients with type 2 AIP, a condition often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, is not different from that of patients with type 1 AIP, except for diabetes.


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