Listening Habits of iPod Users

Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra
December 2010
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Dec2010, Vol. 53 Issue 6, p1472
Academic Journal
Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make recordings of listening levels. These recordings were used to estimate listening levels using reference recordings made in a real ear. Recordings were made in 4 environments with a wide range of background noises: (a) a library, (b) a student center, (c) busy streets, and (d) the subway. Results: None of the 64 listeners were estimated to exceed allowable occupational dosages, with a maximum dose of 7.57% based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA; 1998) methods and 10.83% based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH; 1998) methods. Conclusions: All of the listeners surveyed were exposed to dosages well below OSHA and NIOSH occupational regulations. Although this does not guarantee individual safety, the results do not support the widespread concern regarding the safety of common iPod usage. However, measurements made in this study agree with the finding that iPod output can exceed safe levels and further support recommendations to monitor and limit listening volume and listening duration.


Related Articles

  • Improving Exposure Estimates by Combining Exposure Information. Neitzel, Richard L.; Daniell, William E.; Sheppard, Lianne; Davies, Hugh W.; Seixas, Noah S. // Annals of Occupational Hygiene;Jul2011, Vol. 55 Issue 5, p537 

    Objectives: Any exposure estimation technique has inherent strengths and limitations. In an effort to improve exposure estimates, this study developed and evaluated the performance of several hybrid exposure estimates created by combining information from individual assessment...

  • Characterization of Noise and Carbon Monoxide Exposures among Professional Firefighters in British Columbia. Kirkham, Tracy L.; Koehoorn, Mieke W.; Davies, Hugh; Demers, Paul A. // Annals of Occupational Hygiene;Oct2011, Vol. 55 Issue 7, p764 

    Objectives: To characterize exposures to noise and carbon monoxide (CO) among firefighters in British Columbia, Canada.Methods: Subjects were recruited from 13 fire halls across three municipalities in Metro Vancouver. Personal full-shift noise and CO samples were collected using datalogging...

  • Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians. Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Andersen, Ture Dammann; Poulsen, Torben; Bælum, Jesper // Annals of Occupational Hygiene;Oct2011, Vol. 55 Issue 8, p893 

    Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...

  • Proposed Modification to the Inhalable Aerosol Convention Applicable to Realistic Workplace Wind Speeds. Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H. // Annals of Occupational Hygiene;Jul2011, Vol. 55 Issue 5, p476 

    The current convention for sampling inhalable aerosols was based on several mannequin studies performed in wind tunnels at wind speeds between 0.5 and 4 m s−1. In reality, as we now know, the wind speed in most modern indoor working environments is generally at or below ∼0.2 m...

  • Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Interstrain Variability in Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Mouse. Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Campbell Jr., Jerry L.; Clewell III, Harvey J.; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Wright, Fred A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan // Environmental Health Perspectives;May2014, Vol. 122 Issue 5, p456 

    Background: Quantitative estimation of toxicokinetic variability in the human population is a persistent challenge in risk assessment of environmental chemicals. Traditionally, interindividual differences in the population are accounted for by default assumptions or, in rare cases, are based on...

  • Indoor Air Quality Assessment in a Radiantly Cooled Tropical Building: a Case Study. Qi Jie KWONG; ADAM, Nor Mariah; CIONITA, Tezara; RAGHAVAN, Vijay R.; ABD MALEK, Mohd Fareq // Iranian Journal of Public Health;2014 Supplement, Vol. 43 Issue 3, p89 

    Background: Many studies have been conducted to assess the indoor air quality (IAQ) of buildings throughout the world because it is closely related to comfort, safety and work productivity of occupants. However, there is still lack of available literature about IAQ in tropical buildings that...

  • Biomonitoring as an Intervention Against Methylmercury Exposure. Knobeloch, Lynda; Tomasallo, Carrie; Anderson, Henry // Public Health Reports;Jul/Aug2011, Vol. 126 Issue 4, p568 

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of biomonitoring as an intervention against methylmercury exposure. Methods. During 2004, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services assessed fish consumption and methylmercury exposure among 2,031 men and women who responded to a statewide press...

  • Inheritance Patterns of Noise Vulnerability and "Protectability" in (C57BL/6J 3 CBA/J) F1 Hybrid Mice. Barden, Emily K.; Rellinger, Erin A.; Ortmann, Amanda J.; Ohlemiller, Kevin K. // Journal of the American Academy of Audiology;May2012, Vol. 23 Issue 5, p332 

    Background: Interindividual variation in cochlear vulnerability to noise and ototoxins must in part reflect allelic variation in genes that largely remain unknown. Work in our laboratory has shown that young adult CBA/J mice are more vulnerable to cochlear noise injury than are similar-aged mice...

  • Can exposure to noise affect the 24 h blood pressure profile? Results from the HYENA study. Haralabidis, Alexandros S.; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Velonaki, Venetia; Barbaglia, Giorgio; Mussin, Mauro; Giampaolo, Matteo; Selander, Jenny; Pershagen, Goran; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Babisch, Wolfgang; Swart, Wim; Katsouyanni, Klea; Jarup, Lars // Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health;Jun2011, Vol. 65 Issue 6, p535 

    Objective To study the association between exposure to transportation noise and blood pressure (BP) reduction during nighttime sleep. Methods 24-h ambulatory BP measurements at 15-min intervals were carried out on 149 persons living near four major European airports. Noise indicators included...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics