Energy-level alignment at the tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum/Gd interface and Gd-electron-injection layer for organic electroluminescent device

Kim, Shin Cheul; Kwon, Soon Nam; Choi, Myung-Woon; Whang, Chung Nam; Jeong, Kwangho; Lee, Sam Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Gyoung; Kim, Sunwook
November 2001
Applied Physics Letters;11/26/2001, Vol. 79 Issue 22, p3726
Academic Journal
The energy-level alignment for the tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum (Alq[sub 3])/Gd interface is determined by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. The energy difference between the Fermi level in Gd and the low-energy edge of the highest occupied molecular orbital in Alq[sub 3] is 2.63 eV, and the vacuum level in the Alq[sub 3] layer is moved upward to 0.35 eV with respect to its intrinsic level. Gd/Al, Al:Li (0.1%), and Al were employed as a cathode for the organic electroluminescent device. Among these devices, the device with the Gd-electron-injection layer has operated at the lowest voltage. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.


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