A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

Ribeiro, Manuel C.; Pereira, Maria J.; Soares, Amílcar; Branquinho, Cristina; Augusto, Sofia; Llop, Esteve; Fonseca, Susana; Nave, Joaquim G.; Tavares, António B.; Dias, Carlos M.; Silva, Ana; Selemane, Ismael; de Toro, Joaquin; Santos, Mário J.; Santos, Fernanda
January 2010
BMC Public Health;2010, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p613
Academic Journal
Background: The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design: Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion: Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location. We believe that variability of simulated exposure values at geocoded addresses will improve knowledge on variability of exposures, improving therefore validity of individual exposures to input in posterior statistical analysis.


Related Articles

  • The Influence of Air Pollution to Anaemia in Pregnancy in the Shkodra Region (Albania). Kraja, Emirjona; Caja, Tatjana; Neziri, Anila // Journal of International Environmental Application & Science;Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 5, p984 

    The article presents a study which examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on the frequency of anaemia in pregnancy in the Shkodra Region, Albania. The study uses questionnaires and blood samples to determine the influence of air pollution in the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women....

  • PM10 air pollution exposure during pregnancy and term low birth weight in Allegheny County, PA, 1994-2000. Xiaohui Xu; Sharma, Ravi K.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Zborowski, Jeanne V.; Rager, Judy; Arena, Vincent C.; Dan Volz, Conrad // International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health;Mar2011, Vol. 84 Issue 3, p251 

    Purpose: Low birth weight has been associated with increased risks of mortality and/or morbidity in childhood and adulthood. Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter during pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of delivering...

  • Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Literature. Šrám, Radim J.; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobak, Martin // Environmental Health Perspectives;Apr2005, Vol. 113 Issue 4, p375 

    Over the last decade or so, a large number of studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on birth outcomes. We reviewed these studies, which were identified by a systematic search of the main scientific databases. Virtually all reviewed studies were...

  • IRON PROPHYLAXIS IN PREGNANCY. French, Linda // Journal of Family Practice;Jan1996, Vol. 42 Issue 1, p24 

    This article presents a study on the benefits of iron supplementation for mothers and infants during pregnancy. Many health care providers routinely prescribe prenatal iron supplementation. Previous reports, however, have shown that, with follow-up occurring through pregnancy until the first...

  • Unwed Pregnant Adolescents. Faigel, Harris C. // Clinical Pediatrics;May1967, Vol. 6 Issue 5, p281 

    The paper focuses on the particular problems of the unwed pregnant adolescent. Helping the unwed pregnant teenager includes an understanding why she is pregnant as well as the giving of good medical care. Unwed pregnancy is also becoming increasingly common in striving well-to-do neighborhoods...

  • Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in the INMA Sabadell Cohort. Aguilera, Inmaculada; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rodríguez, Àgueda; Paez, Montserrat; Ballester, Ferran; Sunyer, Jordi // Environmental Health Perspectives;May2010, Vol. 118 Issue 5, p705 

    Background: Few studies have used longitudinal ultrasound measurements to assess the effect of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Objective: We examined the relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and aromatic hydrocarbons [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene,...

  • Getting the Right Pregnancy Care. Ganske, Mary Garner // Parenting;Oct99, Vol. 13 Issue 8, p172 

    Deals with several questions that pregnant women need to ask their obstetrician or midwife. Medical tests that are to be performed; Indications for a cesarean section delivery; Weight gain considerations. INSETS: Midwife or M.D.?;Breaking Up With Your Provider.

  • Effect of Re-Enforcement of Antenatal Care on Outcome of the Baby among Primi Gravidae. Billroth, C. Susila // Asian Journal of Nursing Education & Research;Oct-Dec2012, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p222 

    The article presents a study which examines the effect of re-enforcing prenatal care on the outcome of the baby among first-time mothers at selected hospital in Chennai, India. It is believe that re-enforcing antenatal care on first-time mothers produce significant improvement on the outcome of...

  • Air pollution effects on pregnant women and newborns' health. Tolouei, F.; Safarpoor, D. // Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine;Jun2014 Supplement, Vol. 12, p81 

    Pregnant women are one of the susceptible groups for hypertensive disorders, since changes in pregnancy lead to increased stress on the cardiovascular system and finally result in pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Several studies on pregnant women have shown higher risks of...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics