TITLE

Oxidation states of titanium in bulk barium titanates and in (100) fiber-textured (Ba[sub x]Sr[sub 1-x])Ti[sub 1+y]O[sub 3+z] thin films

AUTHOR(S)
Stemmer, S.; Ho¨che, T.; Keding, R.; Ru¨ssel, C.; Schneider, R.; Browning, N. D.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kleebe, H.-J.
PUB. DATE
November 2001
SOURCE
Applied Physics Letters;11/5/2001, Vol. 79 Issue 19, p3149
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Chemical shifts of titanium L edges and oxygen K edges in electron energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopy were used to detect valence state reduction of Ti in bulk barium titanates, used as reference materials, and in (Ba[sub x]Sr[sub 1-x])Ti[sub 1+y]O[sub 3+z] (BST) thin films grown with excess Ti. A hollandite-type Ba titanate, containing Ti with an average valence state of approximately 3.7 in octahedral coordination, showed large chemical shifts relative to rutile TiO[sub 2] and BaTiO[sub 3], containing only Ti[sup 4+]. In BST, chemical shifts relative to BaTiO[sub 3] were measured from grain interiors of columnar films with different amounts of excess Ti. We found that shifts, corresponding to an average valence state of Ti smaller than nominal 4+, increase with increasing amounts of excess Ti in the films. The results show that at least some amount of excess Ti is accommodated in these films by a defect mechanism that requires a reduction of the average valence state of Ti. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
ACCESSION #
5439358

 

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